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Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration or OSHA is a part of the US Department of Labor, and was started in 1970 as part of the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Its mission is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and deaths by issuing and enforcing rules (called standards) for workplace safety and health. Since it’s inception it has helped to cut the incidents of workplace fatalities by sixty percent, and occupational injury and illness rates by forty percent. This presentation will present what OSHA has accomplished in the past, present and what it hopes to accomplish in the future.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Forty-five percent of all workplace violence incidents in the USA that result in lost workdays occur in the health care sector. Among attendants, orderlies, and nursing aides in 2011, the incidence rate of injuries requiring days off work was 486 cases per 10,000 employees, over four times higher than the national average for all worker
Even though health care workplaces are more dangerous than anywhere else, OSHA (the Occupational Safety and Health Administration) carries out relatively few inspections of health care facilities. The authors added that even when it does find safety problems, there is often not much OSHA can do because of “an absence of much needed safety standards”.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Co-author, Keith Wrightson, a worker safety and health advocate for Public Citizen, said “OSHA is required by law to ensure safe conditions for every employee in the United States. The record is clear that the government has broken its promise to health care workers.”
More musculoskeletal injuries are suffered by orderlies, attendants, nurses and nursing aides than workers in any other industry. Back injuries in the health care industry are estimated to cost over $7 billion every year.
Some industries with very low injury rates are exempt from these recordkeeping requirements. Rights of Employee Workers’ Compensation — An Important Right When a worker is injured, becomes ill or is killed as a result of work, that person is eligible for Workers’ Compensation benefits. The system of Workers’ Compensation was established in the early part of the 20th century. It was a compromise. Workers were guaranteed some compensation and coverage of medical costs if they were injured on the job, regardless of whom was at fault. In return, workers gave up their right to sue their employer for a work-related injury. Workers’ Compensation became the “exclusive remedy” — the only method for workers or their families to be compensated for the worker’s lost ability to work .Regardless of the size of the enterprise, or how they chose to measure it, the safety of each and every employee is crucial to your organization’s success.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Ensuring the health and safety of employees is of primary importance to the Organization. Organization is committed to maintaining safe facilities, sponsoring appropriate training programs, and providing necessary safety equipment. In addition, Administration and staff shall cooperatively develop appropriate procedures and regulations for ensuring employees’ health and safety, with special emphasis on the handling of potentially hazardous equipment or substances and for investigating and reporting any accidents and mishaps. All newly employed staff shall be required to comply with the physical examination. Every employee must provide annually, at a minimum, an updated health history of current health problems.
accidents and mishaps are unforeseen circumstances that can affect individuals and groups at any time and in any place. Most accidents are preventable, but the carelessness or negligence of the involved individuals leads to major injuries and grievances. Accidents can also occur in the workplace and seriously affect the ability and health of the involved workers.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
The objectives of this essay to discuss the safety and wellbeing of all workers are necessary for the organization not only for consistent productivity but also due to regulatory requirements. Workers and human resources are the necessary components of all organizations due to their role in the effective accomplishment of objectives. Corporations cannot achieve long-term success and sustainable growth in the absence of motivated, safe, healthy, and effective workers. The health and safety of all workers are necessary to ensure the enhancement of productivity and efficiency at all levels and areas. Lack of safety measures can create havoc for the organization and negatively affect the working criterion of an organization. The management has to devise and implement effective safety procedures to reduce hazards and prevent accidents in the workplace. The can motivate the employees through this perspective as employees admire working in organizations that prefer safe working conditions. Employees believe that safer working conditions enhance their ability work because they do not feel scared in troublesome situations. The management should coordinate with all the related stakeholders when they devise policies about safety at workplace, as this would enhance a positive change in an organization. Different legislations also depict that organizations should focus on these perspectives and they should attain self-sufficiency in providing workplace safety.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Corporations in the current era focus on the development of employees and they believed in the ideology of benefiting employees through different approaches. Safety at the work force is an important aspect that many organizations of today’s world disregard. Many people face mishaps and accidents in various situations especially due to negligence, recklessness, and carelessness. Many accidents and serious injuries are avoidable and preventable by taking effective safety measures and reducing hazards. For example, drivers and passengers can avoid serious injuries and death by wearing seatbelts while traveling in cars. However, many people fail to realize the importance of seatbelts and face a variety of consequences in the event of an accident. Mishaps and accidents are unforeseen occurrences that can lead to several adverse consequences in the absence of effective safety measures and precautions. Accidents, disasters, and mishaps can also occur in the workplace and affect several employees in the absence of precautions and safety procedures. Certain mediocre organizations do not regard this aspect as important and they do not focus on safety at the workplace. The owners and management of the organization need to implement rules, regulations, procedures, and systems relevant to safety and health. The management also needs to ensure that all workers have ample knowledge and information regarding safety procedures, prevention of accidents, and safe working practices.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Human resources are one of the most important assets of the organization with respect to success and growth. The success and growth of the organization depend on the effectiveness and efficiency of the human resources. However, the inefficiencies in human resources caused by any circumstances, occurrences, and events can hinder the accomplishments of the organization. Organizations take all necessary measures to ensure the productivity of all workers and employees to maximize profits and achieve organizational objectives (Blair, 2013). The wellbeing, safety, and health of all employees are among the highest priorities of all organizations. Organizations cannot take risk for their respective employees because an occurrence of a negative event would tarnish the credibility of an organization. Safe and healthy workers are more productive as compared to injured or sick employees. Employees that cannot work in safe conditions feel suffocated because of the risks associated with their respective work. Risks and hazards associated with a specific job or organization adversely affect the morale and motivation level of employees. The unsafe or hazardous working conditions have several long-term psychological and physiological consequences for the workers and the organizations. When a negative event occurs in an organization, it sets up the mindset of an employee. Employees would feel that this event would occur again and this would create hurdles in their effective working process. Organizations need to create a safe and healthy working environment for all workers to ensure high levels of motivation and enhancement in efficiency (Stricoff & Groover, 2012).Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Safety at Workplace
Workplace safety refers to the prevention of illness, injury, and hazards in the workplace for all employees. Workplace safety involves the creation of a safe and healthy environment for all workers to evade hazards, injuries, and illnesses. Organizations can ensure the efficiency of all workers and circumvent a considerable amount of costs by ensuring workplace safety and health. Organizations develop different strategies through which they set up different work place safety policies and benefit the workers through this. Workplace injuries and illnesses lead to compensation benefits, health insurance costs, hiring temporary replacements, lost work hours, and lawsuits. Lack of concentration would cost severe damage to an organization and they should sort such issues in order to attain proactive benefits. Business can save a considerable amount of costs by creating and maintaining a safe and healthy environment for all workers. Safeguarding the interests and wellbeing of the employees allows organizations to circumvent costs relevant to injuries and illnesses (Legg, Laird, Olsen, & Hasle, 2014). On the other hand, workplace safety instills a sense of commitment and dedication among the employees due to the safety assurance of the organization. The morale and motivation of the workers increase due to the implementation of rules that safeguard the health and interest of the employees. Employees feel that they are safe to work in this place, and through this perspective, they would perform well.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Purpose of Workplace safety
The primary objective of safety in the workplace is to create a safe, healthy, and risk-free environment for all workers. Workplace safety involves the evaluation, analysis, prevention, and elimination of hazardous and dangerous elements from the workplace. Workplace safety programs evaluate and remove the risks and hazards relevant to the safety, well-being, and health of workers and other relevant individuals. Organizations develop health and safety standards due to several reasons including laws, regulatory requirements, organizational policies, and historical occurrences. Certain industries and their associations bind organizations to work for the benefit of their employees and they force organizations to focus on different safety related perspectives. Workplace injuries and illnesses caused by working conditions or environment can lead to lawsuits, high costs, and deterioration of the corporate image. There are instances when employees at times die because of sever working conditions. Employees might got injured because of certain safety and the lack of safety would be the only probable reason of this. Enhanced safety measures and appropriate quality of these measures can reduce this perspective to a considerable level.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Safety at the workplace enables organizations to comply with regulatory requirements and prevent high costs resulting from injuries and illnesses. Several corporations can consider the fact that these safety measures would save their health and medicinal costs that would arise when an employees would hurt him. They should take proactive measures earlier through which people can benefit from these perspectives. The management can maintain high levels of productivity and efficiency by creating a safe and healthy working environment. Conversely, the employees work with dedication due to their perceptions regarding the commitment of the organization with respect to the wellbeing of the workers.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Importance of safety at workplace
Legislative and legal requirements are the most prominent cause of health and safety policies in most organizations. The Occupational and Safety Health Act is the primary law for the assurance of health and safety of all workers throughout the United States. The Occupational and Safety Health Act (OSHA) necessitates the dissemination of standards, rules, and regulations relevant to the safety and health of workers. The government establishes and enforces the standards for the safety and health of all workers and their families through the Act. All public and private organizations have to comply with the rules, regulations, and standards prescribed in OSHA (Jung & Makowsky, 2014). They would face legal complications if they do not comply with such policies and measures taken by the decision makers. However, many organizations develop and implement health and safety procedures to safeguard their interests relevant to organizational objectives rather than legal requirements. The financial and moral aspects of workers’ health and safety have a greater influence as compared to regulatory compliance. Corporations can save considerable costs by avoiding high insurance expenses, lawsuits, and employee replacement costs in the event of injuries and illnesses (Barling & Frone, 2003).Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Manpower and Management
The primary objective of all managers is to enhance and promote productivity and efficiency in all areas and functions. However, the managers cannot uphold efficiency and effectiveness in the absence of a safe workplace. The managers need to create a safe working environment and increase the awareness and knowledge of all employees with respect to safe working practices. The employees and workers also need to understand the importance of workplace safety and reduce personal injury through attentiveness and removal of hazards. These safety hazards are negative for the effectiveness of organizations and create a long-term negative impact. The attitude of the employees, management, and employers plays a vital role in preventing accidents and creating a safe working environment. The negligence on the part of the employers and employees can cause a variety of hazards and accidents (Rahim, Ng, Biggs, & Boots, 2014). However, the diligence and commitment of all stakeholders regarding safe work practices leads to the prevention of major accidents and injuries. The employees and management can create a safe workplace through a shared responsibility model for workplace safety and cooperation. Organizations should own this perspective and they should realize the fact that it is their managerial responsibility to focus on this perspective so that employees can remain safe.OH&S legislation is the result of the vested interests of doctors and lawyers rather than genuine concern for employee health or management excellence’. Do you agree with this statement? Discuss. As an Occupational Health and Safety Special we evaluate, and analyze work environments and design programs and procedures to control, eliminate, and prevent disease or injury caused by chemical, physical, and biological agents or ergonomic factors. We conduct inspections as well as enforce adherence to law and regulations governing the health and safety of the individuals. May be employed in the public or private sector. While on the job occupational health and safety specialist can.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
o Order suspension of activities that pose threats to workers health or safety.
o Investigate accidents to identify causes or to determine how such accidents might be prevented in the future.
o Recommend measures to help protect workers from potentially hazardous work methods, process, or materials.
• Educational requirements including any relevant certification or credentials
o To be an occupational safety and health specialist a bachelor’s degree or master’s degree is usually needed. There are also 55 certification listed according to (careeronestop). Certified industrial hygienist certified governmental safety officers, certified safety manager, certified safety and health manager to name a few. Employees in these careers need several years of work related experience and training. Both on the job and classroom training may be needed.
• Personality traits and skills sets required for you profession. Explain how the traits you learned about yourself from the personality profile in the Unit 3 Learning activity line up with your field and areas you may need to work on.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
There are various problems related to the implementation of policies and procedures related to the health and safety measures of at organizational setting. The major dilemma could be related to communicate all the plans and procedures within the organization at various hierarchical levels. However most of the people remain familiar with these aspects but still there could be proper requirement of following these health and safety policies. Sometime the situation arises that some people within the staff behaves in very careless manner and it just creates troubles with respect to ensuring the safety. Further the lack of training towards operating the machineries and equipments could also be a dilemma in relation to implementing the systems and policies for health and safety and security. It is one of the most troubling issues for the health and social care setting. The training is one of the major sections of ensuring the patients security. Other dilemmas could be related to sensitivity related to spreading of bacteria and virus or harmful germs. Thus these are certain dilemmas that could be faced by health and social care sector. With respect to addressing these issues there is requirement of aligning with the legal aspects within the organization. The internal legal aspects should be compatible as per the external legal aspects. It can provide highly security and safe environment. All the departments and staff people were required to behave in attentive manner and the element of carelessness could be avoided. Thus the role of legal aspects is very immense in ensuring the avoidance of dilemmas. Further the role of training is also huge in order to ensure the effectiveness of security measures. The dilemma related to the lack of training could be eradicated very easily (Verderber, 2010). The training could be imparted in various areas or fields. It is to ensure that training should have proper modules and sessions must be categorised in such a way that it caters all the areas. The seminars and conferences can definitely help in eliminating the dilemmas in appropriate manner. The training could be beneficial in providing the practical knowledge to the employees and most importantly the equipment handling process could be explained. Thus in this way these dilemmas could be addressed or removed in effective manner.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
2.4 Effects of non-compliance experience in relation to health and safety legislation in the workplace.
There are various factors associated to the non compliance of health and safety regulations in the workplace. If the legislations are not clear than lots of problems and issues could be faced. The major negative consequences could be that the roles and responsibilities of care workers could be explained in proper way. It is one of the major problems related to non compliance. The care workers won’t be able to understand various aspects which are helpful on the ground of their rights as well. The delay in tasks completion could be faced and most importantly the delay in decision making could be experienced. The integration among the staff people could lower down and it can create lots of negative aspects. The chaos could be created and definitely confusion can make the scenario worst. The teamwork could be hampered and differences among the staff people could be realized. It is to acknowledge that it might be noticed that peace and harmony among the staff people has been minimized and the level of grudges is also very high. It lowers down the productivity as well and the working efficiency could be diminished. Irresponsible attitude could be developed among them. it is one of the major issues related to the non compliance experience. Thus the legislation must be implemented and followed in an appropriate manner. Ahead problems could be faced in achieving the organizational goals and objectives (Ludhra, 2014). The reputation of the firm could also be spoiled at very large scale if the legislation practices are not so appropriate. People can never put their faith and it just minimizes the footfalls ratio of patients.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
On the basis of above study it can be concluded that the marketing has power to establish the business and it integrates with other department as well. In order to improve the position of company within the market the marketing mix elements must be used in effective and proper manner. the major learning of the study is that marketing mix elements could be designed in proper manner if the marketing audit has been done in an appropriate way. It includes both internal and external environment assessment. For the travel and tourism company they need to focus on variety of segments even they are focusing on particular tourism activity. However it is very risky for any business but uniqueness could be supported through marketing strategies. Overall it could be stated that all the marketing strategies are inter linked to each another and must be designed in well organized as well as well systematic manner. Further the study has contributed well in developing the intellect towards the difference between Business 2 business marketing and business to consumer marketing along with international and domestic marketing. It is very crucial as well as significant learning of the study.Risk and challenges are important to children, avoiding these would result in a very timid child/ adult who would lack in everyday skills and abilities and wouldn’t be aware of risks and dangers. Children need to explore and take risks to learn and develop the UN Convention on the rights of children stresses on their right of making choices and taking decisions. But they do not always have the skills and judgments to make safe choices. This is where the adults working with children have to strike a balance between the child’s right of freedom to make choices and our duty of care to ensure children in our care don’t get harmed or injured . For example: A special needs child having physical disability might be restricted in play because of concern that the child could hurt himself whereas the child really wishes to take part in play however in a well controlled environment the child could be encouraged to explore and try out new skills under adult supervision. In my nursery we allow children free flowing take over, respecting their choices and decisions ,allowing them to pick any activity and toy they want to play with yet keeping an eye on them that they take turns, share and do not do anything that could harm themselves and other children. It applies to our out door activities as well we ensure they are appropriately dressed for the weather, they are freely allowed to play with sand, climbing the frame, ride on the bike and cars etc yet on these events the staff is evenly split for children’s safety and care Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Health and Safety job roles and responsibilities
Employer responsibilities include informing the health and safety representative or joint health and safety committee of any work-related accidents involving injury, death or occupational illness, and providing the health and safety representative or joint health and safety committee with the results of any reports relating to health and safety in the workplace.
It is the role of the director to run the business, to interact with the business community and in essence, to seek to make a profit, which is then either reinvested into the business. The law imposes a number of different duties on directors. These are contained in a mixture of common law duties that have evolved over many years of case law e.g. not to prefer the directors own interests over those of the company and shareholders as well as now a number of statutory duties that have been codified in the Companies Act 2006.
Directors of all types of organisations in both the private and public sectors, have responsibilities for ensuring that health and safety risks arising from their organisations activities are properly managed.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Effective directors input of health and safety risks will help: * maximise the well-being and productivity of all people working for an organisation * stop people getting injured, ill or killed through work activities * Improve the organisation’s reputation in the eyes of customers, competitors, suppliers, other stakeholders and the wider community.
As an employer you must comply with certain legal responsibilities.
Strong and active health and safety leadership is important for three main reasons: * protecting the health and safety of employees or members of the public who may be affected by your business’ activities * identifying health and safety as a key business risk * complying with health and safety legislation duties Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
The results of risk assessment are very much positive in informing the people towards the care of people and patients. The risk assessment help in making the familiarity with possible risks available into the health and social care settings and most importantly its reflections could be experienced upon decision making process as well. If the risk assessment is not so proper then the policies related to health and safety could never be implemented or designed in proper way. The systems and procedures could also become lead towards the familiar as the business entity is actually not familiar to their real problem and issues. The risk assessment process has main advantage related to the fact that it enables an organization to identify the problems and issues which they are facing currently. The weak aspects and errors in the health and safety measures could also come into notification. The risk assessment process also provides the facility to compare the actual standards with the current standard and through comparative analysis the improvements could be introduced. The planning process could be improved as it enables an organization to get hold on their review and monitoring process as well. The major contribution is that the areas of concern and possible risks could be assessed in painstaking manner and huge level of security measures could comes into existence. The guidelines could also be identified in an appropriate and effective manner by the company. With the help of those guidelines the equipments and machineries could be installed accurately. The international standards could be followed as risk assessment process indicates towards following all the internationally set benchmarks. The changes into the existing policies could also be facilitated if the existing policies are not compatible to set guidelines. The decision could be effective and result oriented and most importantly could benefit all the people associated to the health and social care organization. The safety of people could be ensured through risk assessment but it should be done in honest and effective way, it is the only requirement of getting the right results from risk assessment process (Boden, Hall, Levenstein & Punnett, 1984). Thus in this the planning could be improved at very large scale through these risk assessment practices and every kind of health care unit could undertake this process and avail the positive consequences.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Numerous initiatives launched by international, governmental and non-governmental organizations are making the concept of human security recognizable and are entrenching it firmly into public policies. These policies shape society and lives in order to achieve the highest possible level of safety, security and personal dignity. Human security is increasingly being adopted as a doctrine to guide foreign policies and international development assistance, as well as a policy tool for planning in the fields of security, development and humanitarian work.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
To define human security policies, we could use two terms – policy and politics. The term policy would refer to decision making activities in the public sphere which are important to the community. Using the term politics, would limit the interpretation to advocating the interests of a community. It is important to note the key differences between traditional security policy and human security policy.
Human security approaches and policies focus on the physical and material safety and dignity of people globally, and not on the military and strategic interests of individual states, which is the case with traditional security policies. Defending human life is more important than defending states and personal integrity is just as important as territorial integrity.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Wars between states are still a major global problem, and together with civil wars (intra-state conflicts), pose major threats to human security around the globe. Use of threat and force has not been reduced in international policies as the war in Syria shows. Additionally, human security is also increasingly threatened by disasters, state collapse and widespread human right abuses.
As human life and its protection is always the highest priority for people, human security policies place an emphasis on addressing a wide range of threats, on prevention, and lived experiences and a bottom-up approach rather than a focus on territory and elite agendas as in classic security. From the perspective of human security peace always comes before war, incentive for cooperation before armed conflict, and transparency and factual reporting on military operations should replace secrecy and propaganda when providing information.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Human security policies involve a much wider spectrum of actors who need to contribute to security. While military and police forces are the principal guarantee of security in the traditional approach, for human security policies, civil society is an important actor as well. Civil society, among other things, plays a part in arms control and may help bring about disarmament, as seen in disarmament programs “goods for weapons” in Central America, Eastern Europe and Africa, under the auspices of local non-governmental groups. Civil society plays a key role in promoting compliance with national laws, and in verification of international treaties (this is the case, for example, with conventions on the prohibition of the use of landmines), in generating information and a bottom up perspective and in improving the legitimacy and sustainability of policy responses.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
The importance of human security policies is also reflected in seeking to bring together security and development. The development of a community plays an important role in supporting disarmament, removing incentives for violence and criminalised economy, and when striving for security of a community, development is considered at the same time, as a way of ensuring peace. Conflict can be seen as ‘development in reverse’.
Threats to human security are interconnected and often produce a domino effect. For example, violent conflicts often arise out of marginalization, deprivation and poverty and in turn can lead to resource depletion, infectious diseases, education deficits, etc. Also, threats cannot be contained within a given country or area but can spread into a wider region and have negative impacts on regional and international security. Therefore, human security involves a comprehensive approach, emphasizing both multiple sources of insecurity faced by individuals and groups, and the need for cooperative and multi-sectoral responses, and which brings together various actors involved in development, security and human rights.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Human security has a double focus, concentrating on protection and empowerment. Protection implies a “top-down” approach. It is recognized that people face threats that are beyond their control (e.g., natural disasters, financial crises and conflicts), and human security therefore requires protecting people in a systematic, comprehensive and preventative way. States have the primary responsibility to implement such protective policies. However, international and regional organizations, the civil society and non-governmental actors as well as the private sector also play a role in protecting people from various sources of insecurity they are exposed to.
Empowerment implies a “bottom up” approach and aims to develop capabilities of individuals and communities to develop their full potential, to make appropriate decisions and find ways to participate in maintaining human security for themselves and others.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
A good example of cooperation and joint multi-sectoral approaching solving the disarmament problem is the RECSA – an inter-governmental organization that coordinates the efforts of its Member States to combat the proliferation of small arms in the region. It was established in 2005 to oversee the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States in its Member States. From the original 11 countries that signed the Nairobi Protocol, member countries to RECSA have increased to 15, namely: Burundi, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
As a key activity preceding disarmament, RECSA worked on raising awareness and educating the population and youth aiming to change their views on illegal possession of firearms, disarmament and to promote a culture of peace. Activities included organization of street marches, theatre plays, writing essays, youth competitions, broadcasting RECSA documentaries on national television, etc. Disarmament and voluntary surrender of illegal arms happened in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania. In Congo, the civil disarmament campaign ran in cooperation with the UNDP and other partners (MONUSCO, community leaders, the police and the military, civil society and the provincial parliamentary caucus), resulting in 70% of the population voluntarily surrendering arms. The campaign managed to collect21,099 pieces of small arms and light weapons. In return, those who voluntarily surrendered their weapons were given various goods, such as motorcycles, grinders, bicycles, bedding, mobile phones, hoes, soap, etc.(Information Brief on The Regional Centre on Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States (RECSA),2014)Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
From the perspective of the protection and empowerment framework, human security policies aim to identify problems in the existing security infrastructure and to find ways to relieve them. At the same time, a key feature of human security policies is that they are contextualised. They should recognise the specific nature of threats and possibilities for action. By encouraging participatory processes, the human security approach supports the development of a network of diverse actors and establishing formal mechanisms for their cooperation. This can enhance the dialogue between government institutions and citizens and lead to an increase in trust and greater civic engagement, as well as improve social cohesion.
Human security has played a significant role in the global development discourse since the term was introduced in the 1994 Human Development Report. Nowhere more so than
in Japan, where the Development Cooperation Charter sees human security as “the guiding principle that lies at the foundation of Japan’s development
cooperation.”Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
There are, however, different interpretations of the concept. The UNDP’s 1994 report looked at it as freedom from fear and freedom from want. But the scope has gradually expanded, rightly so in my opinion, and a 2012 UN Resolution described human security as “the right of people to live in freedom and dignity,
free from poverty and despair.” However you interpret the concept, it is clear that it is closely related to human development. Human development requires
a foundation of human security and, in turn, provides a stepping stone to greater human security.
In my paper I offer a framework for thinking about the types and sources of threats that human security faces, and the instruments to deal with them.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Threats to Human Security
Almost all dangers to human existence may be categorized as human security threats. One simple categorization sees concerns as threatening survival; well-being; or dignity. These threats may be further subdivided according to their sources, which might be the physical, living or social systems.
In the physical system, threats include natural disasters, such as earthquakes, floods and tsunamis.
In the living system – the biological sphere – threats include disease, famine and ecological disasters. The influenza outbreak in the early 20th century, for instance, killed more people than World War I.
The social system threats include war and displacement. It can be informative to divide the social system further into social, political and economic settings.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
These physical settings alone do not automatically bring about threats to human security; interactions with living systems and social systems are important determinants. Similarly, the interactions with humans and the biological sphere may lead to the spread of the diseases and multiply the damage caused by the original natural hazard.
Increasing Human Security
Generally speaking, there are two ways to increase human security: one can either try to reduce the causes or ameliorate the consequences. Of course there are threats whose causes are impossible to eliminate: we cannot stop tectonic plates from shifting for example. Threats from viruses and communicable diseases can be reduced by directly attacking microbes. Polio strains were eradicated in many parts of the world, but the fight continues to be waged in countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria. But for many diseases it is difficult to eliminate microbes completely; in these cases, we must try to reduce their impact on humanity.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Reducing the threats to well-being is not easy either. There is a growing consensus that inclusive development is the desirable approach to development. The real debate now is centered on what are the concrete measures that contribute to inclusive development. Some of the key components include infrastructure that benefits all parts of the country, universal basic education, agricultural policies that empower smallholder farmers, vocational training for men and women, universal health coverage, and adequate nutrition for all, as well as a stable global economy.
But these are interventions that take effect in the long-term, and they may not protect human security when it is threatened by a natural disaster, civil war or disease. And it is here that defensive mechanisms, such as humanitarian assistance or short-term and flexible vocational training, become important. Threats to dignity often require deep rooted structural action often aimed at institutions. It was no quick task to dismantle the apartheid regime in South Africa.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
But who should provide this security? The sovereign state clearly has a major role. But it is also important to note that there are limitations to states’ capacities and many threats even go beyond what a sovereign state alone can address. Some of the fundamental threats to human security – climatic, ecological, economic and social – do not respect state boundaries. And so, my paper argues, given the global and interconnected nature of our world, cooperation among various stakeholders – states, international organizations, the business sector, civil society organizations, academic institutions, and so on – is essential.
Human security is the right concept for the 21st century world, where interactions occur along geological, geographic, climatic, biological, and social systems on the global level, and where unilateral actions by single states are inadequate to deal with such threats. However, my paper demonstrates how ignorant we still are about the underlining causes, their interaction with each other, and how to cope with these threats. Most of my observations are preliminary. To increase our understanding of human security, we need theoretical clarity and must be ready to conduct more empirical studies. There remains much to be done.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
The concept of human security represents a departure from orthodox security studies, which focus on the security of the state. The subjects of the human security approach are individuals, and its end goal is the protection of people from traditional (i.e., military) and nontraditional threats such as poverty and disease. Moving the security agenda beyond state security does not mean replacing it but rather involves complementing and building on it. Central to this approach is the understanding that human security deprivations can undermine peace and stability within and between states, whereas an overemphasis on state security can be detrimental to human welfare. The state remains a central provider of security, but state security is not a sufficient condition for human welfare.
Human security fully entered the policy and academic debates in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, despite its widespread usage within national and international policy circles, its definition remains highly contested. The holistic vision of protecting the security of people lends itself to a variety of interpretations shaped by relative understandings of what constitutes a threat to the security of individuals, how the intensity and repercussion of any given threat can be measured (i.e., historical data or forward-looking forecasts), and by what possible means the threat can be prevented or removed. The coalition of states and supranational organizations that have supported the approach can count numerous accomplishments, such as the Ottawa Convention (i.e., Mine Ban Treaty), the establishment of the International Criminal Court, and the Optional Protocol to the Convention of the Rights of the Child.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 mandates that all nongovernment employers provide a safe and healthful workplace for their employees. It also provided for the creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The act directs OSHA to develop and issue standards through a public rule-making process. Employers must comply with those OHS standards as they would with any statutory requirement (Blosser 1992).Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
The most important federal standards governing OHS are found in OSHA standard 29 CFR Part 1910 (www.osha.gov; Standards 29CFR). That document contains many sections that are pertinent to the work conducted in facilities where nonhuman primates are used in research, teaching, and testing. For example, the OSHA bloodborne pathogens standard (29 CFR 1910.1030) requires institutions to provide hepatitis B vaccinations to employees who handle blood, organs, or other tissues from experimental animals infected with hepatitis B virus and to make a confidential medical evaluation available to the employee immediately after an exposure to animal tissues that are contaminated with a bloodborne pathogen. The OSHA standard on occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories (29 CFR 1910.1450) requires medical surveillance when monitoring reveals an exposure that routinely exceeds the action level for an OSHA-regulated substance, such as a time-weighted average of 0.75 ppm or a short-term exposure level of 2.0 ppm for formaldehyde (29 CFR 1910.1048). The OSHA standard regulating the use of compressed gases is 29 CFR 1910.101, personal protective equipment (PPE) standards are in 29 CFR 1910.132-1910.140, and electric systems requirements are in 29 CFR 1910. 301-1910.330 although other sections of 29 CFR 1910 might also be applicable.Human security is concerned with safeguarding and expanding people’s vital freedoms. It requires both protecting people from critical and pervasive threats and empowering people to take charge of their own lives. Protection refers to the norms, policies and institutions essential to shield people and implies a ‘top-down approach’, such as the rule of law and democratic governance. Empowerment underscores the role of people as actors and participants and implies a ‘bottom-up’ approach.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
The human security approach is a proven analytical and planning framework that supports more comprehensive and preventive responses by the United Nations, cutting across sectors, developing contextually relevant solutions, and adopting partnerships to help realise a world free from fear, want and indignity.
From coordination to integration
The application of human security advances comprehensive responses that address the multidimensional causes and consequences of complex challenges. As such, it calls for integrated actions among a network of stakeholders to ensure lasting responses to the most difficult deficits in peace and development.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Promoting multi-stakeholder partnerships
Human security draws together the expertise and resources of a wide range of actors from the United Nations system, Governments, private sector, civil society and local communities. This allows for seizing synergies that capitalize on the comparative advantages of various stakeholders.
Localisation and ‘leaving no one behind’
Recognizing that the root causes and manifestations of challenges vary significantly across countries and communities, human security promotes responses that are grounded in local realities. It helps localise international and national agendas to ensure that no one is left behind.
Prevention and resilience
Prevention is the core objective of human security. It addresses the root causes of vulnerabilities, focuses attention on emerging risks and emphasizes early action. It strengthens local capacities to build resilience, and promotes solutions that enhance social cohesion and advance respect for human rights and dignity.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Programmes applying the human security approach and supported by the UN Trust Fund for Human Security (UNTFHS) have a well-established track record and proven value. They have reinforced United Nations support to Member States in strengthening resilience to climate change and natural disasters; promoting peaceful and inclusive societies; addressing the underlying causes of persistent poverty; and bolstering the transition from humanitarian crisis to longer term sustainable development. As such, the application of human security can significantly enhance actions taken by the United Nations and its partners to fully realize the transformative promise of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, and the Sustai
Human security does not seek to supplant state security, but rather to complement it. States have the fundamental responsibility of providing security. Yet they often fail to fulfil their obligations – many times they are even the source of the threat to people. As the multitude of violent conflicts and extreme poverty demonstrates, states cannot be secure if people’s security is at stake. But neither can people be secure in the absence of strong, democratic and responsible states, as the multitude of collapsed states in the world illustrates. These are the challenges in Afghanistan, Iraq and Palestine today.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Human security also underscores the close linkages between gross human rights violations and national and international insecurities. The Rwandan genocide represents one of the worst human security failures, and the consequences still reverberate through the Great Lakes region of Africa nearly ten years later. Therefore, realizing human rights lies at the core of protecting and empowering people.
Human security also adds an important dimension to development thinking. As Amartya Sen argues ‘development can be seen as a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy’. By focusing on downside risks, human security emphasizes that people must be protected when facing sudden and profound reversals in economic and social life. In addition to ‘growth with equity’, human security is equally concerned with ‘downturns with security’. In the absence of safety nets, people face critical and pervasive insecurities in sudden downturns which, in turn, may be exacerbated, increasing conflict and violence, as recent examples in Asia and Latin America illustrate.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
If security is to be protected, conflict prevented, human rights respected and poverty eradicated, we require urgently a new consensus on security. This is a shared responsibility. Human security provides an impetus for all countries, whether developed or developing, to review existing security, economic, development and social policies. Creating genuine opportunities for people’s safety, livelihood and dignity should be the overall objective of these policies.
Equally important is to overcome the existing compartmentalization of policies and programmes along institutional divisions of work – along security, development and assistance lines. This requires a fundamental rethinking of current institutional arrangements and policies. Integration rather than separation should be the catch phrase.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
At a time when the exercise of hard military power seems to leave little scope for soft power, of promoting democratic principles or respecting freedom and human rights, this call for a new security consensus may appear ill timed. But hard power alone does not win the minds and confidence of people. Not only does our security understanding need to respond to changing threats, but also to the emerging configuration of joint efforts by civil society groups and community leaders. States no longer hold the monopoly over security issues. People themselves are expected to shoulder increasing responsibilities in determining their own interests, aspirations and security.
It is important to note that the OSHA standards are not all-inclusive. They do not directly address every hazard or risk present at every worksite. To address hazards not covered by a particular standard, OSHA may cite Section 5(a)(1) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (also designated 29 USC § 654(a)(1)); this provision is called the general duty clause because it imposes on employers the general obligation of furnishing workplaces that are “free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm” (Blosser 1992)Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA (www.osha.gov) is the federal agency charged with protecting the health of employees and preventing occupational injuries, disease, and death. Although OSHA and NIOSH were created by the same act of Congress, they are distinct agencies with separate responsibilities. OSHA is responsible for creating and enforcing workplace safety and health regulations. It establishes protective occupational standards and enforces them through inspection and monetary penalties. It also provides free on-site support to identify and correct hazards and provides assistance in setting up OHS programs.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
NIOSH (www.cdc.gov/niosh/homepage.html) is the federal agency responsible for conducting research on and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related disease and injuries. NIOSH and OSHA often work together toward the goal of protecting worker safety and health.
NIOSH can be an excellent source of information on OHS for institutions and individuals. It publishes hazard-specific guidance (“hazard IDs”) such as Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B Virus) Infection Resulting from Ocular Exposure, which is available online at www.cdc.gov/niosh/ and provides a summary of key points, a description of the hazard, recommendations for preventing B virus infections, recommended actions, and references for additional information.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Occupational Health and Safety in Federal Facilities
The Occupational Safety and Health Act in Section 19, also designated 29 USC 668, requires heads of federal agencies to establish and maintain comprehensive and effective OHS programs consistent with the standards set for nongovernment employers by OSHA (such as 29 CFR 1910), although no inspection oversight is detailed. Presidential Executive Order 12196, issued in 1980, further defines the responsibilities of federal agencies, including inspection requirements for federal OHS programs. The inspection requirements for federal agencies are listed in 29 CFR 1960; for example, inspectors must be safety or occupational health specialists or other persons with sufficient training or experience to recognize hazards and suggest general abatement procedures (29 CFR 1960.28(a)); and all agency workplaces must be inspected annually, and more frequent inspections must be conducted in workplaces where there is an increased risk of accident, injury, or illness (29 CFR 1960.25(c)). Furthermore, responsibility for oversight of federal OHS programs is assigned to the Office of Federal Agency Programs (OFAP), which functions as a “mini-OSHA” for federal employees. In essence, federal agencies must comply with the same OSHA standards as nongovernment employers; however, they are inspected by OFAP rather than OSHA, and they are not subject to monetary penalties.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
The Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (OLAW 2000) requires institutions that receive federal funds to have an OHS program as part of their overall animal care and use program. PHS Policy requires institutions to use the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NRC 1996) as a basis of an institutional program for activities involving animals. The Guide includes OHS guidelines related to hazard identification and risk assessment; personnel training; personal hygiene; facilities, procedures, and monitoring; personal protection; and medical evaluation and preventive medicine for personnel. The Guide is discussed further later in this chapter.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
The Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW), in the Office of Extramural Research at the National Institutes of Health (www.grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/olaw.htm), plays an important role in the implementation of PHS Policy. OLAW exercises compliance oversight of PHS Policy on research conducted or supported by any component of the PHS through approval of Animal Welfare Assurances. Each institution that receives federal funding must provide a written Assurance to OLAW. The Assurance Statement outlines how the institution will comply with PHS Policy, including how it will comply with the OHS guidelines outlined in the Guide. Once an Assurance Statement is accepted by OLAW, the institution is considered an “Assured” program. OLAW encourages programs to observe applicable industry standards, such as the National Research Council’s Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals(NRC 1997).Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Once a risk assessment has been completed, the final step before developing a risk management plan pertaining to OHS is understanding pertinent OHS standards. Leadership at institutions where nonhuman primates are used in research, teaching, or testing not only must be aware of workplace hazards and associated risks when developing their OHSP but also must be knowledgeable about and compliant with applicable regulations and guidelines. Those prerequisites can be a challenge in that multiple agencies or regulations may be applicable in a given institution. Regulation may be mandated at the federal and state levels and may depend on whether the nonhuman-primate work in question occurs in a federal facility or a federally funded institution. This chapter describes the important regulations and guidelines and provides contact information on organizations that can provide guidance and education on safety standards. Much of the information in this chapter can be found in Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NRC 1996) and Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals (NRC 1997) and is restated here for ease of use.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Thousands of people are affected by the lack of school safety in schools across the nation. Students everywhere are attending schools that are more dangerous than expected. This is a growing concern everywhere, and schools need to improve, or else they are prone to being unsafe. Whether it is building, drill, concussion, social, or technology safety, schools need to improve to lower the risk of an incident.
Project Citizen is an effort to improve our community one step at a time. Project Citizen requires a lot of research for specific sections of our main problem. These are called tasks. After all of the tasks are finished, everyone writes a paper summarizing the main problem. Then, everyone makes a presentation in groups. The keys to being successful in Project Citizen are to work hard, research well, work as a team, and most importantly, be organized. The steps to Project Citizen are: Identifying a problem in the school or community, research the problem, evaluate possible solutions, then develop public policy ideas and pick the best solution. The main goal of Project Citizen is to improve our school/community to make it a better place. This year, the hope is to make our school safer, and less prone to accidents happening.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
In order to have a safe school, you need to know the terms to understand the importance. Safety means the condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, or injury. Security is the state of being free from danger or threat. These two terms are synonyms along with well-being, protection, and freedom from danger. “Safety First” is “Safety Always.” says Charles M. Hayes. This shows how safety needs to be present all of the time, because you never know when an incident can happen.
2.2 Impact of one aspect of your health and safety policy on your own practice with service users and the care team.
It is to acknowledge that there are various factors that can help on the ground of making the perfect combination of health and safety for clients and staff. Only one single factor could not be helpful with respect to the health and safety of employees. Cleanliness hygiene, operational theatre architecture, layout and most importantly the handling of equipments and machineries etc. these are some of the major aspects that can facilitate the high level of security not only for the patients but for staff also. One aspects of health and safety policy is to ensure the cleanliness and hygienic environment at the workplace. Cleanliness and hygiene could be helpful in ensuring the security as very large scale. It is to acknowledge that if the cleanliness is not proper within the organizational setting than the bacteria could be spread and most importantly the virus could create harmful effect for the society as well. The care team and own practices suggest that it has been found in past as well that neglecting the element of cleanliness even at very small stage have created such blunders and negative consequences for the health of people. It should gain huge consideration into the organizational policies. The cleanliness and hygiene could definitely be helpful with respect to disseminate the healthy environment. The hygiene could definitely need to be ensured in operation theatre where the threat of infections is very immense. In case of risk analysis it has been found that avoiding the clean environment within the operation theatre cause harmful effects to both doctors and patients. The nursing staff as well as the helping team also faced lots of negative implications. This is the only reason that why cleanliness and hygiene maintenance have got huge priority into the health and safety policy. For the same purpose it has been taken care of that every operation must be conducted in highly hygiene environment, washing facilities like hand wash, clothing laundry etc. must be appropriate so that the bacteria could be killed on immediate basis. It is a best way to prevent germs and viruses to get spread in whole environment (Clarke & Cooper, 2004). Beyond these aspects the waste materials also required to be dumped as per the instructions. The set of instructions have been passed with respect to the implement this policy within the organizational setting in stringent manner.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
The purpose of any organization is no just restricted towards earning the profits and ensuring the sustainability. There is huge requirement of ensuring the fact that with the help of health and safety also the companies can definitely fulfill their responsibilities and duties. It is to acknowledge that there are various that can contribute in minimizing the risks by identifying them and creating proper strategies for the same. Here in current scenario the special consideration has been paid to identify the risk associated with the organizational setting and taking the organization’s decisions. Further the dilemmas have also encountered with respect to the implementation of policies and procedures related to the health and safety and security measures (Baldock, James, Smallbone & Vickers, 2006). It is very much considerable and prioritized element within the study. At last the legal compliance has also explained with the perspective of ensuring the health and safety at workplace. Overall the information has been gathered from proper risk analysis process. This information could be helpful in various instances as it can provide opportunities to bring improvement in current health and safety standards along with strengthening the decision making process.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Occupational Health and Safety
The term ‘occupational health and safety’ (often abbreviated to OHS), is used describe work practices that will keep employees safe. The absence of OHS can be detrimental to a company and its workers alike, as there is a high risk of serious injury. Safety on many worksites must be the top priority for any corporation. Though at our walk-around of Juggernaut Industries, we noticed it wasn’t monitored at all. The following is a list of possible effects and laws that will remind you of the consequences.
Effects on Individuals and Their Possible Experiences
With the lack of workplace safety practices, there can be tremendous effects on families and the community. This can come in the form of unwanted media attention and large financial costs, as well as court cases.
With the absence of proper OHS standards, employees can start having adverse health effects. These effects will most likely harm their daily health severely and could take its toll, with the exposure to asbestos, hazardous chemicals, stress, fatigue, extreme heat etc. The employee could develop diseases, such as forms of cancers, tumours, or physical injuries as such. Physical Injuries could include, cuts, bruises, sprains, etc. which require medical or first-aid attention. Injured employees, cannot work productively and will need time off work. Also, the family of the worker will also take the burden of financial costs associated with seeking medical attention and performing operations as such. These costs can further intensify when the injured family member cannot earn money due to their sickness, and where another family member may be forced to resign from their job in order to take care of the injured family member Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Occupational Health and Safety legislation is a crucial aspect to all workplaces to ensure employee safety. The legislation was created to protect employees, firstly in order to ensure ways to prevent workplace injury and secondly, that in case of injury the employee has guaranteed compensation. Occupation health and safety benefits both the workplace and the workers, and is the outcome of concerns regarding employee health and workplace risks, as well as management excellence and reducing workplace harm. It was not a result for the interests of doctors and lawyers.
Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) legislation are a set of rules that promote worker safety within a workplace. These rules are based around the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 (Work Safe Australia, 2014, p.1) which aim to improve workplace safety in Victoria, however these are regulated and applicable nationally. This act ensures that certain precautions are taken in work activities by both employers and employees to benefit both parties through the minimisation of health or harmful risks and ensure that management of the workplace operates with minimal complications. Each profession and workplace encourages and educates employees of OH&S procedures, and how to optimize personal safety. This creates a win-win situation, as the employees are ensured safety whilst the work place reduces the responsibility they have towards injured employees as well as the risk of employee injury.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
Conclusively, a safety plan is necessary and it comprises of certain steps that would develop a safer workplace. Organizations should make sure that everyone else in the workplace is aware of the core problem. People should notify their respective supervisors and they should file any reports if there is a problem. An important aspect is that people should realize that there is a problem as sitting back and holding the problem for a long time would not solve the problem.
Fundamental principles of occupational safety and health
- Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155) – [ratifications ] and its Protocol of 2002 – [ratifications ]Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
The convention provides for the adoption of a coherent national occupational safety and health policy, as well as action to be taken by governments and within enterprises to promote occupational safety and health and to improve working conditions. This policy shall be developed by taking into consideration national conditions and practice. The Protocol calls for the establishment and the periodic review of requirements and procedures for the recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases, and for the publication of related annual statistics.
- Occupational Health Services Convention, 1985 (No. 161) – [ratifications ]
This convention provides for the establishment of enterprise-level occupational health services which are entrusted with essentially preventive functions and which are responsible for advising the employer, the workers and their representatives in the enterprise on maintaining a safe and healthy working environment.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
- Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 2006 (No. 187) – [ratifications ]
This Convention aims at promoting a preventative safety and health culture and progressively achieving a safe and healthy working environment. It requires ratifying States to develop, in consultation with the most representative organizations of employers and workers, a national policy, national system, and national programme on occupational safety and health. The national policy shall be developed in accordance with the principles of Article 4 of the Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155) , and the national systems and programmes shall be developed taking into account the principles set out in relevant ILO instruments. A list of relevant instruments is contained in the Annex to the Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation, 2006 (No. 197) . National systems shall provide the infrastructure for implementing national policy and programmes on occupational safety and health, such as laws and regulations, authorities or bodies, compliance mechanisms including systems of inspection, and arrangements at the level of the undertaking. National programmes shall include time-bound measures to promote occupational safety and health, enabling a measuring of progress.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
- Further relevant instruments
Health and safety in particular branches of economic activity
- Hygiene (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1964 (No. 120) – [ratifications ]
This instrument has the objective of preserving the health and welfare of workers employed in trading establishments, and establishments, institutions and administrative services in which workers are mainly engaged in office work and other related services through elementary hygiene measures responding to the requirements of welfare at the workplace.
- Occupational Safety and Health (Dock Work) Convention, 1979 (No. 152) – [ratifications ]
See under dockworkers.
- Safety and Health in Construction Convention, 1988 (No. 167) – [ratifications ]
The convention provides for detailed technical preventive and protective measures having due regard for the specific requirements of this sector. These measures relate to safety of workplaces, machines and equipment used, work at heights and work executed in compressed air.
- Safety and Health in Mines Convention, 1995 (No. 176) – [ratifications ]
This instrument regulates the various aspects of safety and health characteristic for work in mines, including inspection, special working devices, and special protective equipment of workers. It also prescribes requirements relating to mine rescue.
- Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention, 2001 (No. 184) – [ratifications ] Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
The convention has the objective of preventing accidents and injury to health arising out of, linked with, or occurring in the course of agricultural and forestry work. To this end, the Convention includes measures relating to machinery safety and ergonomics, handling and transport of materials, sound management of chemicals, animal handling, protection against biological risks, and welfare and accommodation facilities.
Protection against specific risks
- Radiation Protection Convention, 1960 (No. 115) – [ratifications ]
The objective of the Convention is to set out basic requirements with a view to protect workers against the risks associated with exposure to ionising radiations. Protective measures to be taken include the limitation of workers’ exposure to ionising radiations to the lowest practicable level following the technical knowledge available at the time, avoiding any unnecessary exposure, as well as the monitoring of the workplace and of the workers’ health. The Convention further refers to requirements with regard to emergency situations that may arise.
- Occupational Cancer Convention, 1974 (No. 139) – [ratifications ]
This instrument aims at the establishment of a mechanism for the creation of a policy to prevent the risks of occupational cancer caused by exposure, generally over a prolonged period, to chemical and physical agents of various types present in the workplace. For this purpose, states are obliged to determine periodically carcinogenic substances and agents to which occupational exposure shall be prohibited or regulated, to make every effort to replace these substances and agents by non- or less carcinogenic ones, to prescribe protective and supervisory measures as well as to prescribe the necessary medical examinations of workers exposed.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
- Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration) Convention, 1977 (No. 148) – [ratifications ]
The convention provides that, as far as possible, the working environment shall be kept free from any hazards due to air pollution, noise or vibration. To achieve this, technical measures shall be applied to enterprises or processes, and where this is not possible, supplementary measures regarding the organization of work shall be taken instead.
- Asbestos Convention, 1986 (No. 162) – [ratifications ]
Aims at preventing the harmful effects of exposure to asbestos on the health of workers by indicating reasonable and practicable methods and techniques of reducing occupational exposure to asbestos to a minimum. With a view to achieving this objective, the convention enumerates various detailed measures, which are based essentially on the prevention and control of health hazards due to occupational exposure to asbestos, and the protection of workers against these hazards.
- Chemicals Convention, 1990 (No. 170) – [ratifications ]
The Convention provides for the adoption and implementation of a coherent policy on safety in the use of chemicals at work, which includes the production, the handling, the storage, and the transport of chemicals as well as the disposal and treatment of waste chemicals, the release of chemicals resulting from work activities, and the maintenance, repair and cleaning of equipment and containers of chemicals. In addition, it allocates specific responsibilities to suppliers and exporting states.Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper
ILO Codes of Practice set out practical guidelines for public authorities, employers, workers, enterprises, and specialized occupational safety and health protection bodies (such as enterprise safety committees). They are not legally binding instruments and are not intended to replace the provisions of national laws or regulations, or accepted standards. Codes of Practice provide guidance on safety and health at work in certain economic sectors (e.g. construction, opencast mines, coal mines, iron and steel industries, non-ferrous metals industries, agriculture, shipbuilding and ship repairing, forestry), on protecting workers against certain hazards (e.g. radiation, lasers, visual display units, chemicals, asbestos, airborne substances), and on certain safety and health measures (e.g. occupational safety and health management systems; ethical guidelines for workers’ health surveillance; recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases; protection of workers’ personal data; safety, health and working conditions in the transfer of technology to developing countries). Workforce Injuries In Healthcare Essay Paper