Woman Psychology Paper Project

Woman Psychology Paper Project

Woman Psychology Paper Project

Each student will identify a movie or television show that you believe relates to one or more of the topics of we have studied this semester, and write a paper (approximately 5-8 pages) analyzing the themes related to the psychology of women explored within the show. The student will identify the movie/TV show, write a summary of the show in his/her own words, and then provide an explanation of the psychology themes evident in it. Please be sure this is your own analysis/opinion on this topic. I will be checking for any copied material. Woman Psychology Paper Project


This paper will be typewritten in APA format, double spaced and 12 point font, with proper spelling and grammar.

The paper must be written in APA format.

*The first page is a title page, and, in addition to a header should have a Running head in the top upper left. Otherwise, it only includes your name, the name of the course, and the date.

*The second page is an Abstract, which is a one paragraph summary of your paper. These first two pages do NOT count toward your official page count, though they are numbered.

*The third page is the first page of your actual paper. Your title will be first and then begin your writing, which should start with an introductory paragraph. At the conclusion of the paper you should have a summary paragraph to close.

*At the end please be sure to have a Reference page done in APA format.

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    Third Edition


    Claire A. Etaugh Bradley University

    Judith S. Bridges University of Connecticut at Hartford, Emerita





    First published 2013, 2010, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

    Published 2016 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY, 10017, USA

    Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

    Copyright © 2013, 2010, 2006 Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

    Notices: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Woman Psychology Paper Project

    Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text on page 490.

    ISBN: 9780205255634 (pbk)

    Cover Designer: Suzanne Behnke

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Etaugh, Claire.  Women’s lives : a psychological exploration / Claire A. Etaugh, Judith S. Bridges. — 3rd ed.   p. cm.  Includes bibliographical references and index.  ISBN-13: 978-0-205-25563-4  ISBN-10: 0-205-25563-9  1. Women—Psychology. 2. Women—North America—Social conditions. I. Bridges, Judith S. II. Title.  HQ1206.E883 2012  155.3′33—dc23





    Chapter 1

    Chapter 2



    Introduction to the Psychology of Women Definitions: Sex and Gender Women and Men: Similar or Different?

    Similarities Approach Differences Approach

    Feminism History of Women in Psychology

    ■ GET INVOLVED 1.1: How Do People View Feminism? Women and the American Psychological Association Women’s Contributions

    History of the Psychology of Women The Early Years The Recent Years

    Studying the Psychology of Women Bias in Psychological Research ■ GET INVOLVED 1.2: Are Samples in Psychological Research Biased? Feminist Research Methods ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 1.1: Doing Cross-Cultural Research on Gender Drawing Conclusions From Multiple Studies ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 1.1: Principles of Feminist Research. Woman Psychology Paper Project

    Themes in the Text Theme 1: Intersectionality: The Diversity of Women’s Identities and

    Experiences Theme 2: Gender Differences in Power ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 1.1: Help Empower Girls and Women Theme 3: Social Construction of Gender

    Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

    Cultural Representation of Gender Stereotypes of Females and Males

    The Content of Gender Stereotypes ■ GET INVOLVED 2.1: How Do You View Typical Females and Males? The Perceiver’s Ethnicity and Gender Stereotypes The Target’s Characteristics and Gender Stereotypes




    Chapter 3

    Stereotypes of Girls and Boys Bases for Gender Stereotypes Stereotypes Based on Identity Labels

    Sexism: Experiences And Attitudes Experiences With Sexism Changes in Sexist Attitudes Over Time Modern Sexism Ambivalent Sexism ■ GET INVOLVED 2.2: Who Holds Modern Sexist Beliefs? ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 2.1: Benevolent Sexism Is a Global Phenomenon

    Representation of Gender in the Media Pattern 1: Underrepresentation of Females ■ GET INVOLVED 2.3: How Are Females and Males Portrayed on Prime- Time Television? Pattern 2: Underrepresentation of Specific Groups of Females ■ GET INVOLVED 2.4: Media Advertisements and the Double Standard of

    Aging Pattern 3: Portrayal of Gender-Based Social Roles Pattern 4: Depiction of Female Communion and Male Agency Pattern 5: Emphasis on Female Attractiveness and Sexuality Impact of Gender-Role Media Images ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 2.1: Are Babies Portrayed Stereotypically in Birth Congratulations Cards? ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 2.1: Increase Girls’ and Women’s Awareness of the Effects of Media ■ GET INVOLVED 2.5: Are Both Women and Men Persons? Woman Psychology Paper Project

    Representation of Gender in the English Language Language Practices Based on the Assumption That Male Is Normative Negative Terms for Females Significance of the Differential Treatment of Females and Males in

    Language Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

    Gender Self-Concept and Gender Attitudes Gender Self-Concept Prenatal Development

    Stages of Prenatal Sex Differentiation Intersexuality ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 3.1: Multiple Genders

    Theories of Gender Typing Psychoanalytic Theory




    Chapter 4

    Social Learning Theory Cognitive Developmental Theory Gender Schema Theory ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 3.1: Ways to Minimize Gender Schemas in Children

    Gender-Related Traits Changes in Gender-Related Traits Over Time ■ GET INVOLVED 3.1: What Are Your Gender-Related Traits? Gender-Related Traits and Psychological Adjustment Evaluation of the Concept of Androgyny ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 3.1: A Real-Life Approach to Androgyny

    Gender Attitudes ■ GET INVOLVED 3.2: What Are Your Gender Attitudes? ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 3.2: Gender Attitudes in Global Context

    Individual differences in Gender-related attitudes ■ GET INVOLVED 3.3: Ethnic Variations in Gender Attitudes

    Perceived Value of Female Versus Male Gender-Related Attributes ■ GET INVOLVED 3.4: Would You Rather Be a Female or a Male?

    Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

    Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence Children’s Knowledge and Beliefs About Gender

    Distinguishing Between Females and Males Gender Identity and Self-Perceptions Gender Stereotypes ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 4.1: Gender Stereotypes About Occupations

    Gender-Related Activities And Interests Physical Performance and Sports ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 4.1: How Do Children Develop Gender Stereotypes in Other Cultures? Toys and Play Gender Segregation ■ GET INVOLVED 4.1: Play Patterns of Girls and Boys

    Influences On Gender Development Parents ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 4.2: Learning Gender-Related Roles at Home and at Play Siblings School Peers




    Chapter 5

    Media Puberty

    ■ GET INVOLVED 4.2: Influences on Gender Development Events of Puberty Menarche Gender Differences in Puberty Early and Late Maturation in Girls

    Psychosocial Development in Adolescence Identity Formation Self-Esteem Gender Intensification ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 4.1: Empowering Girls to Lead Social Change Body Image ■ GET INVOLVED 4.3: Perceptions of Actual and Desirable Physique

    Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

    Gender Comparisons Gender-Related Social Behaviors And Personality Traits

    Aggression Prosocial Behavior Influenceability Emotionality Moral Reasoning

    Communication Style Verbal Communication ■ GET INVOLVED 5.1: “Troubles Talk”: Effects of Gender on Communication Styles Nonverbal Communication

    Gender Comparison of Cognitive Abilities Verbal Ability Visual-Spatial Ability Mathematics Ability ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 5.1: Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement Around the World ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 5.1: Factors Linked to Women’s Perspectives on Math ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 5.2: Gender, Computers, and Video Games ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 5.1: Encouraging Girls in Math and Science

    Summary Key Terms




    Chapter 6

    Chapter 7

    What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

    Sexuality Sexuality

    Sexual anatomy and Sexual Response Sexual Attitudes Sexual Behaviors Sexual Problems

    Lesbians, Gay Men, Bisexuals, And Transgender Individuals ■ GET INVOLVED 6.1: Attitudes Toward Lesbians Bisexuals Attitudes Toward Sexual Minorities ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 6.1: Sexual Minorities Around the World Explanations of Sexual Orientation ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 6.1: Supporting Rights of Sexual Minorities

    Sexual Activity During Adolescence Frequency of Sexual Activity ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 6.1: Hook-Ups and Friends With Benefits Factors Associated with Sexual Activity The Double Standard Sexual Desire

    Sexual Activity in Midlife Physical Changes Patterns of Sexual Activity

    Sexual Activity in Later Life Benefits of Sexual Activity in Later Life ■ GET INVOLVED 6.2: Attitudes Toward Sexuality in Later Life Sexual Behavior of Older People Factors Affecting Sexual Behavior Enhancing Sexuality in Later Life

    Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

    Reproductive System and Childbearing Menstruation

    The Menstrual Cycle Menstrual Pain Attitudes Toward Menstruation Menstrual Joy




    Chapter 8

    Premenstrual Syndrome ■ GET INVOLVED 7.1: Menstrual Symptoms

    Contraception Contraception in Adolescence Methods of Contraception

    Abortion Incidence Methods Consequences of Abortion ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 7.1: Women’s Reproductive Lives Around the World

    Pregnancy Pregnancy: Physical and Psychological Changes ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 7.2: Female Genital Cutting ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 7.1: Help Increase Reproductive Choices of Girls and Women ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 7.3: Pregnancy-Related Deaths Around the World Miscarriage Teenage Pregnancy ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 7.4: Why Is the Teen Pregnancy Rate So High in the United States?

    Childbirth Stages of Childbirth Methods of Childbirth Childbearing After 35 Childbearing in the Later Years ■ GET INVOLVED 7.2: Pregnancy and Childbirth Experiences Postpartum Distress Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Reproductive Functioning in Midlife and Beyond Menopause ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 7.1: Childfree by Choice ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 7.5: Menopause: Symbol of Decline or of Higher Status? Hormone Replacement Therapy. Woman Psychology Paper Project

    Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

    Relationships Friendships

    Friendship in Adolescence Friendship in Adulthood




    Friendship in Later Life Romantic Relationships

    Desirable Qualities in a Partner Perception of Sexual Interest ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 8.1: What Do People in Other Cultures Look for in a Mate? Dating ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 8.1: Dating Issues for Women With Physical Disabilities ■ GET INVOLVED 8.1: Dating Scripts of Women and Men

    Committed Relationship Marriage Cohabitation Lesbian Relationships

    Single Women Divorced Women Never-Married Women Widowed Women Women Who Have Lost a Same-Sex Partner

    Motherhood Stereotypes of Mothers Single Mothers ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 8.1: Help Address Issues of Parenting and Work- Family Balancing Lesbian Mothers Mothers With Disabilities The “Empty Nest” Period ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 8.2: Adult Children of Lesbian Mothers

    Relationships in the Later Years ■ GET INVOLVED 8.2: Women’s Experiences During the Empty Nest Period Siblings Adult Children ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 8.2: Living Arrangements of Older Women and Men Grandchildren ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 8.3: Grandmothers: The Difference Between Life and Death Parents ■ GET INVOLVED 8.3: Interview With Older Women

    Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Know More Websites




    Chapter 9

    Chapter 10

    Education and Achievement Women’s Educational Goals, Attainments, and Campus Experiences

    Educational Goals Educational Attainments ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 9.1: Is There a “Boy Crisis” in Education? ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 9.1: Educating Girls Worldwide: Gender Gaps and Gains Campus Climate ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 9.2: The Oppressive Educational Climate Under Taliban Rule ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 9.1: Promote Education of Girls Worldwide

    Women’s Work-Related Goals ■ GET INVOLVED 9.1: Does Your Campus Have a Hospitable Environment for Women? Career Aspirations Career Counseling Work-Family Expectations Work-Family Outcomes Salary Expectations

    Influences on Women’s Achievement Level and Career Decisions Orientation to Achievement Personal Characteristics Sexual Orientation Social and Cultural Factors ■ GET INVOLVED 9.2: Family and Cultural Values About Education and Career Goals Job-Related Characteristics

    Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

    Employment Women’s Employment Rates and Occupational Choices

    Employment Rates Occupational Choices ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 10.1: Job Retention and Advancement Among Low-Income Mothers

    Gender Differences in Leadership and Job Advancement Leadership Positions Barriers That Hinder Women’s Advancement Women as Leaders

    Gender Differences in Salaries Comparative Salaries




    Chapter 11

    Reasons for Differences in Salaries ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 10.1: Effectively Negotiate Your Salary ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 10.1: Girls and Women in the Global Factory ■ GET INVOLVED 10.1: Gender-Based Treatment in the Workplace

    Women’s Job Satisfaction Gender Differences in Satisfaction Job Satisfaction of Sexual Minorities

    The Older Woman Worker Employment Rates Why Do Older Women Work? Entering the Workforce in Later Life Age Discrimination in the Workplace

    Changing the Workplace Organizational Procedures and Policies Strategies for Women ■ GET INVOLVED 10.2: Ways to Make the Workplace Better for Women

    Retirement The Retirement Decision ■ GET INVOLVED 10.3: Interview With Older Women: Work and Retirement Adjustment to Retirement Leisure Activities in Retirement ■ GET INVOLVED 10.4: Leisure Activities of Older and Young Women

    Economic Issues in Later Life Poverty Retirement Income: Planning Ahead ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 10.2: Economic Status of Older Women ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 10.2: Start Planning for Retirement

    Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

    Balancing Family and Work Women’s Family and Employment Roles: Perceptions and Attitudes

    Perceptions of Working and Stay-at-Home Mothers ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 11.1: Are Women “Opting Out” of Careers? ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 11.1: Attitudes Toward Married Women’s Employment: A Cross-Cultural Perspective Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward Women’s Multiple Roles

    Division of Family Labor ■ GET INVOLVED 11.1: How Do College Students Evaluate Mothers Who Are Full-Time Students?




    Chapter 12

    Housework and Child Care Caring for Aging Parents Leisure Time Women’s Perceptions of the Division of Family Labor Explanations of the Division of Family Labor

    Family–Work Coordination Balancing Family and Work: Costs and Benefits ■ GET INVOLVED 11.2: What Psychological Experiences Do You Think You Will Have If You Combine Employment and Motherhood? Effects of Mothers’ Employment Solutions to Family–Work Balancing Challenges ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 11.2: Parental Leave Policies Around the World ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 11.2: How Do Tag-Team Parents Reconcile Their Own Roles With Their Traditional Gender Attitudes?

    Midlife Transitions in Family and Work Roles ■ GET INVOLVED 11.3: Women’s Experiences in Coordinating Family and Work Roles ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 11.1: Advocate for Family-Friendly Work Policies Satisfaction With Life Roles Regrets About Life Direction Making Changes Midlife Transitions: A Cautionary Note

    Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

    Physical Health Health Services

    The Physician–Patient Relationship Type and Quality of Care Ethnicity, Poverty, and Health Care Women With Disabilities and Health Care Sexual Minority Women and Health Care Health Insurance

    Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) ■ GET INVOLVED 12.1: What Women Say About Their Health Overview of STIs AIDS ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 12.1: Knowledge and Communication About STIs ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 12.1: The Global AIDS Epidemic

    Reproductive System Disorders Benign Conditions