SUBS Research Discussion 2 Paper

SUBS Research Discussion 2 Paper

SUBS Research Discussion 2 Paper

This assignment requires evidence based information such as pictures, diagrams, videos

Please read attached instructions and utilize resources attached for this assignment

The topic is Alcohol

Thread: Thoroughly review the research assignment instructions in the Assignments folder before proceeding. Present your subtopic research in accordance with the following:

  • At least 3 peer-reviewed scholarly articles from the JLF Library. Weekly course materials may not be used in this assignment (i.e., textbooks, articles, videos, etc.). SUBS Research Discussion 2 Paper
  • At least 3 multimedia sources from the internet from reputable sources (properly credited and referenced)
  • Use of at least 3 Bloom’s Taxonomy skills included, and at least 2 use HOTS.
  • Graduate level writing style (i.e., formal tone, proper grammar, sentence structure, paragraph style and length, and current APA writing format)
  • Current APA format (i.e., citations, references, headings, person tense, writing style, etc.)



The student will post one thread of at least 30050-400 words by each thread, students must support their assertions with at least 3 scholarly citations in current APA format for graduate students. Each reply must incorporate at least 2 scholarly citation(s) in current APA format for graduate student format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources include discussion sources, the textbook, peer-reviewed scholarly sources, and the Bible. SUBS Research Discussion 2 Paper

Required Resource

Inaba, D. S., & Cohen, W. E. (2014). Uppers, downers, all arounders: Physical and mental effects of psychoactive drugs (8th ed.). Medford, OR: CNS Productions, Inc. ISBN: 9780926544390.

Case Scenario for SUBS Research Discussion 2 Paper

A client reports that he is feeling down and withdrawn lately. You notice that his movement and affect are slow and restricted. He is aware that he has become more isolated and doesn’t find much satisfaction in his work anymore. At one time he enjoyed his work and took pride in his skill as a cabinetmaker, but lately he is having trouble completing the jobs he has and doesn’t have the energy to go after new jobs.

He tells you it is harder to get out of bed in the morning and he often doesn’t return calls from friends or customers. He says this has been going on for the last four months and he feels completely stuck.

He has become isolated from friends and ruminates over how he messed up past relationships. He says he drinks alcohol most nights – usually a few beers or wine with dinner. Occasionally, he has a few shots of brandy before going to bed. When you encourage him to be more specific about his alcohol intake, (e.g. how much wine and how many beers and when), he becomes irritated and dismisses your questions insisting that he doesn’t believe he has problem with alcohol. SUBS Research Discussion 2 Paper

Thread:   After reading the above Case Scenario, respond to the following  :

· What evidence indicates that the client has developed an alcohol use disorder?

· Are there indications that the client is abusing any other drugs?

· How could a medical condition, the abuse of alcohol and other drugs contribute to the emotional state and social isolation described by the client?

· Prioritize the clinical interventions that are necessary to treat this subject.



SUBS 606

Addictive Substances



Recent data suggests may interact with membrane receptors. Comment by Cagwin, Callie Lynne (Center for Curriculum Development): Should this say “…suggests alcohol may…” SUBS Research Discussion 2 Paper

· Also gates for GABA, ACh, 5-HT

· GABA—inhibitory; reinforces by changing “subjective state”

· ACh—controls neurotransmitter release; ETOH decreases Ach which produces hypnotic, depressant effects Comment by Cagwin, Callie Lynne (Center for Curriculum Development): Should this be ACh

· Probably increases DA—reward center pathways

· ETOH reduces 5-HT which may cause in fluid intake generally Comment by Cagwin, Callie Lynne (Center for Curriculum Development): Should this say “…may cause increase in fluid intake” or “…may cause decreases in fluid intake” or something else? SUBS Research Discussion 2 Paper

· 5-HT modulates DA (increases reinforcement)



Anxiolytics, barbiturates; often includes alcohol; CNS depressant—main difference is onset, intensity, duration

· Depresses both excitatory and& inhibitory function

· Increases GABA effects

· Barbiturates are “dinosaurs” replaced by benzodiazepines

· Effects similar to alcohol, but ETOH is more toxic

· Used therapeutically for treatment of anxiety, sleep disturbance, & and anticonvulsants Comment by Cagwin, Callie Lynne (Center for Curriculum Development): Should this be “as anticonvulsants” or is this used to treat anticonvulsants?

· Cross-tolerance & and snynergismsynergism/potentiation

· Anxiolytics (vs. barbiturates)—effects affectson limbic system without affecting reticular activating system (consciousness & and awareness) or cortex (thinking & and problem-solving)

· Have high therapeutic index—OD resulting in death is rare when taken alone

· Buspar—good alternative; lacks generalized CNS depressant effects; takes 1-–2 weeks for therapeutic effect; less drowsiness, fatigue, mental slowing; low abuse potential; doesn’t have synergistic effects with alcohol; reduced cross-tolerance



80% of U.S. adults report daily intake; most have moderate consumption, with 20% dosing enough for clinical symptoms; most widely used psychoactive agent in the world; occurs naturally, but is also added to hundreds of prescription drugs, OTC analgesics, and stimulant, diet, and& cold products

· Caffeinism—syndrome of acute or chronic overuse characterized by CNS effects of anxiety, psychomotor agitation, sleep disturbances, mood changes, and/or psychophysiological complaints

· “cChoosers” experience being energetic, contented, & and alert; “nonNon-choosers” describe anxiety, jitteriness, & and mood changes

· Increase in DA & and NE are secondary effects, but stimulate reward centers

· Tolerance does develop—pharmacologically, risk becomes high when intake exceeds 500mg/day

· Absorption is high, complete, & and rapid; promptly crosses blood-brain barrier

· Caffeine reduces “natural” sedative, anxiolytic, & and anticonvulsant actions; blocks “tranquilizing” SUBS Research Discussion 2 Paper

· effect of adenosine

· Caffeine may help with migraines due to constricting blood vessels in brain

· Increases heart rate and& contraction force; diuretic & and enhances gastric acid; can produce headache, heart pain, & and fast or irregular heartbeat; diarrhea

· Withdrawal begins 18-–24 hours after last dose; lasts about 1 week—headache, fatigue, drowsiness

· Increased caffeine intake is associated with eating disorders, panic disorder/attacks, and increased anxiolytic use/abuse. SUBS Research Discussion 2 Paper

· The “caffeine-alcohol-tobacco” triad


25% of US adults smoke cigarettes; over the years, the education gap has been widening (1965: -35% college grads; 1990-: 13.5% college grads); education status has become the best SES predictor of smoking rates; rate of decline—H.S. dropouts (.20), H.S. grads (.48), some college (.81), college grads (.84)

· 20% of total deaths attributable to smoking (400,000)—cardiovascular disease, respiratory, lung & and other cancers; reduced fertility & and fetal growth, increased ectopic pregnancy & and spontaneous abortion; non-smokers exposed to similar risks through “second-hand” smoke

· Those who quit live longer, healthier; decline in health risk continues for 10-–15 years Comment by Cagwin, Callie Lynne (Center for Curriculum Development): Could the decline in health item be moved to a new bullet point? And, could “are” be added before “healthier”? SUBS Research Discussion 2 Paper

· Produces tolerance & and withdrawal—rapid absorption, quick delivery, short ½ half-life; readily absorbed

· Stimulating nicotinic receptors and nicotinic-cholinergic receptors lead to peripheral nervous system effects; probably lead to secondary effects on dopaminergic systems in the forebrain

· Concentration/attention enhancements occur in former & and deprived smokers, not in nonsmokers or non-abstinent smokers. SUBS Research Discussion 2 Paper

· Involved with other addictions



Used in pain relief, intestinal conditions, & and cough suppressant

Opioids &and receptors occur naturally in the brain

· Enkephalins—similar to morphine; more potent

· Endorphins

· Act as neurotransmitters or modulators of neural activity; act on 3 different opiate receptors

· Involved in pain perception

· Tolerance—repeated use decreases effect; cross-tolerance among opiates



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          Inaba & Cohen: ch. 5

        • YouTube Video
           Presentation: Neurocircuitry of Addiction – An Alcohol Perspective
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