Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay

Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay

Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay

Write the first paragraph of your research paper. Include an outline of topic sentences to go with your essay. See the attached examples in the following links. Please must be in APA format

Purpose: To ensure patients have a successful endoscopy experience.Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay
Audience: Physicians, Endoscopy patients, Class, Professor,
Argument: Patients should inform his or her physician of any medications being taken, any allergies and all known health problems

Trials of Endoscopy
I. Endoscopy is an excellent medical procedure to diagnose and treat gastric diseases. An upper endoscopy is used to visually examine the upper digestive system with a tiny camera on the end of a long, flexible tube. It can be made with local anesthesia or moderate sedation, to eliminate any unpleasant sensations that patients may feel throughout the process. The medical term is esophago-gastroduodenoscopy (Mayo Clinic, 2017). To accomplish a safe and complete examination, the stomach should be empty. The patient will most likely be asked to have nothing to eat or drink for six hours or more prior to the procedure. Prior to scheduling an endoscopy procedure, the patient should inform his or her physician of any medications being taken, any allergies and all known health problems to ensure a successful experience.
II. A specialist in diseases of the digestive system (gastroenterologist) uses an endoscopy to diagnose and, sometimes, treat conditions that affect the esophagus, stomach and beginning of the small intestine (duodenum).
III. An endoscopy is a very safe procedure. Rare complications include: risk of bleeding after the procedure is increased if it involves removing a piece of tissue for testing (biopsy) or treating a digestive system problem.
IV. The endoscopic follow- up of digestive diseases has a vital importance because this will depend on the therapeutics to follow.Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay
V. Nowadays endoscopy has become one of the essential procedures in modern medicine indicated for diagnostic investigation, therapy, surveillance and screening of a wide range of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.

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Outlining: a Critical Blueprint
Strong academic writing has a clear structure. Start by drafting an outline to help you stay on track.
Sample Outline:
• Intro Paragraph
• Body Paragraph (repeat as needed)Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay
Topic Sentence
Concrete Detail
Transition Sentence
• Conclusion

No architect would construct a building without a detailed floor plan; why would anyone attempt to write an essay without an outline?

Body Paragraphs
The body paragraphs in your essay supportthe main idea in your thesis statement bybreaking it down into smaller ideas or subtopics. Ideas in your paragraphs should relate back tothe thesis statement.


• Introduction &Thesis Statement

Body Paragraph 1_____________
Body Paragraph 2_____________
Body Paragraph 3_____________
Body Paragraph 4_____________
Body Paragraph 5_____________

Body Paragraphs
Most paragraphs contain between five to ten sentences. The first line of a paragraph is usually indented (begin a few spaces to the right of the margin) to show that there is a new
paragraph.Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay
Indent :

________________________ . ____________________. _________________. _________________________. ____________________________. ____________________. ______________________. ______________________________.

Key Features
Body paragraphs should should containsome of the following features.
• A Topic Sentence
• Supporting Sentences
• A Concluding Sentence
• Unity, coherence, order

1.1.1. State a topic sentence that reflects the argument of the thesis statement
1.1.2. Introduce supporting details and evidence
1.1.3. Explain evidence
1.1.4. Discuss significance
1.1.5. Draw a conclusion

Topic sentence

In academic essay , topic sentences usually appear at the beginning of a body paragraph. Because a topic sentence encapsulates the idea of your body paragraph ,it introduces to your audience what the paragraph will be about . It should reflect or advance the argument of your thesis statement .Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay

Supporting Details

Following the topic sentence are sentences that introduce your supporting evidence . Evidence may include a useful or informative sentence from a book ,a journal article ,or another source that supports the argument of the paper. It may also include an example draw from first-hand observation of personal experience.


Clarify the information you provided with your quote or example . Explain what the quote means in a concise manner .Provide necessary details to develop your example as evidence.


Discuss the significance of the quote/example to the argument of the paper.

Conclusion /Transition

As the discussion of evidence draws to a close, you should draw on the evidence and explanation to reach a conclusion: a new understanding of the thesis. This conclusion may set up the transition to the next paragraphs

Structuring Body Paragraphs
Body Paragraph #1
(a)Topic Sentence to state main idea
(b)Concrete detail or ‘evidence’ to support main idea
(c)Analysis of this evidence
(d) Concrete detail
(e) Analysis
(f)Transition Sentence to relate body paragraph back to your thesis or to connect to the next body paragraph Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay

Of the three paragraphs–introductory, body and concluding– the body is probably the
most difficult to write. WHY?

Because . . .
• This is where you actually have to use reason and logic.
•In other words, if you don’t think before writing, you will more than likely either
• repeat yourself
• go off topic
•or not write enough.
•(Errors which more than likely will cause you to fail.)

As a result,
Writing body paragraphs takes more planning and time than the introductory or concluding paragraph.

Before you write a body paragraph, you need to make sure . . .
•That you have adequate and specific examples.Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay
•A short story to back up or illustrate your thinking.


• A well organized paragraph, making sure that your ideas are in the right order.

Concluding Sentence
. Definition and Purpose

A concluding sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph. A conclusion can
remind the reader of the main points of a paragraph and/or leave the reader with
something to think about in relation to the

Transitional Sentences
• Don’t end with analysis…doing so may make your body paragraphs seem like separate, disconnected ideas.
• In order for body paragraphs to work together, transitional sentences are necessary!
• Effective transitional sentences connect your analysis back to the thesis.
Concluding Sentence
Body Paragraph
An important factor in learning a foreign language has to do with the concept of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation. When we do something for the “fun of it” or because we enjoy it, that is called intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, is when we do something for the purpose of receiving some kind of external reward such as money, time off from work, etc. Many education experts believe that intrinsic motivation is more powerful when it comes to helping students retain what they’ve learned. The question and challenge for teachers today is, “How can we help our students become intrinsically motivated in what we are teaching?”
This concluding sentence tries to leave a final thought with the reader by asking a question.
This is the format for the body paragraph which should include about 5 to 10 sentences and be of about 100 words in length.

a. Topic sentence: one sentence
b. Supporting idea: two sentence
c. Supporting idea: two sentence
d. Supporting idea: two sentence
e.Closing sentence:one sentence


Assignment Description

Write a five to four-page informative research essay (900-1200 words) where you synthesize information gleaned from scholarly sources on a topic related to your IIHCP program of study or field of interest. (Note: The title page and reference page will be in addition to the four to five-page requirement.) You will demonstrate the usual essay-writing skills, but also show your mastery of both library database and online research skills. You will read widely and deeply on a topic related to your field of study, identify a research question, articulate a thesis, and then use outside sources to support your thesis.

You must reference a minimum of five sources in your paper. Your five sources must be library or Google Scholar sources, which include books, newspapers, magazines, articles and journals whether in print, digital or online. They must be authored by reputable organizations, trusted sources.

All drafts of the essay must be presented in APA manuscript format and all research must be cited as per APA documentation style. To set up your paper in APA style, see the “APA 6th Edition Template” handout in course documents.

For a discussion of how to cite sources in APA, go to: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

For a sample paper in APA style, go to: http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/pdf/MLA/Hacker-Mira-APA.pdf

For another example, go to: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/pdf/20090212013008_560.pdf

*This assignment sheet is being introduced, but the final essay is not due until Week Twelve.
Please note the various activities associated with the essay
throughout the weeks ahead as you build toward your finished product.

Finding a Topic and Research Question
You may use the link below to help you find a topic and research question:
The Thesis Statement of an Informative Research Essay

The thesis statement (usually one sentence) expresses the main idea to be explored in the body of your paper. It is usually located at the end of the introductory paragraph. The purpose of the thesis statement is to help the writer (1) shape ideas before writing, (2) organize the development of the paper, and (3) stick to the point while writing. The general thesis should always be determined before the writing begins, although it may be altered during the writing process. After reading the thesis statement in your introduction, the reader should have a clear understanding of your paper’s purpose and direction.
Writing a Good Thesis Statement:Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay
1. Give your thesis definite content:
Example: Cancer is a serious and feared disease that may be both preventable and curable.
2. To focus your thesis, you may want to consider “blueprinting.” A blueprinted thesis allows you to unpack the points of your thesis by making them sections in the body of your paper. The result is a clear structure that keeps you and your readers on topic.
Example: Many serious diseases can be effectively treated through changes in diet, exercise, and lifestyle.

Informative Research Essay

Research and Writing Process Activities and Timeline

1. WK1-3: Select a topic of interest to research.
2. WK1-3: Narrow your topic to a manageable research question.
3. WK1-3: Develop a thesis statement
4. WK1-7: Conduct research related to your research question.
5. WK1-11: Participate in a discussion forum to help you further reflect on and refine the preliminary stages of your essay.
6. WK7-11: Create a References List with a summary of each entry and why it is appropriate.
7. WK3: Compose an outline with thesis statement that clearly articulates your position on the topic and develop an outline that supports your thesis statement and connects to the research you have compiled.
8. WK5: Write an Introduction with thesis statement in APA format.
9. WK6: Write your first draft in accordance with APA manuscript style and APA documentation standards. It will include a correctly formatted Title Page and References list.
10. WK8: Participate in Peer Review. Revise and edit your draft as you get reviews back.
11. WK10: Provide a self-assessment of what you need to do to improve your essay once you have feedback from your peers.
12. WK12: Submit a final draft of your Informative Research Essay.

Research Question:
Topic (Title) of your paper:
I. Introduction (one or two paragraphs)
A. Opening: How will you bring your reader into your essay? How will you hook him or her into reading? How will you introduce your topic? What general background information does your reader need?
B. Thesis statement: often the last sentence in the introduction. This is the most important sentence of the essay. How can you deliver the message of your essay in one amazing sentence?
II. Key Point #1: topic sentence for first key point: what is this section going to be about?
A. Sub-point giving supporting details: what ideas “unpack” your 1st key point? Evidence: What credible source(s) will you draw from to support your point?
B. Sub-point giving supporting details and evidence
C. Concluding sentence of Section 1: link back to thesis and/or forward to Key Point #2

III. Key Point #2: topic sentence (making sure you have transitioned well from 1st key point)
A. Supporting details and evidence
B. Supporting details and evidence
C. Concluding sentence of Section 2: link back to thesis and/or forward to Key Point #3

IV. Key Point #3: topic sentence (making sure you have transitioned well from 2nd key point)
A. Supporting details and evidence
B. Supporting details and evidence
C. Concluding sentence of Section 3
You may have other key points but likely not more than five
V. Conclusion: no further sources needed since this is wrap-up
A. Brief summary, OR
B. A “so-what” version: If what has been stated is fact, what are the implications?
C. Restatement of thesis in light of the information and evidence you have presented
D. Final sentence(s): end with a “clincher” . . . a flourish.Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay

Adapted from “Easy Outline Worksheet” at: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=c3BoLXNlbnR1bC5uZXR8ZWxpc2V8Z3g6NjhlY2JmZTg3NDc2M2QyMg


You have located at least five reputable sources for use in your Informative Research Essay. Now create a References List with Justifications that includes for each entry:

1. The reference provided in APA format
2. A four to five sentence summary of the material that will be useful for your paper and justification as to why it is a useful, credible, and appropriate source.

For a valuable discussion of annotated bibliographies, consult the OWL Purdue website at:

For a sample of an APA Annotated Bibliography entry, see:


Research Essay Peer Response Guide

Instructions for Peer Reviewers: Carefully review each item for the assignment. Point out areas of strength and weakness in your peer’s paper, and give specific suggestions for improvement.
• Is the focus of the research essay clearly stated in the thesis statement in the introduction?

• Has the writer effectively developed his or her key points by integrating and synthesizing quotes, paraphrases, and summaries from relevant scholarly sources?
• Is enough evidence provided? Is the provided evident appropriate and effective?
• Does the writer demonstrate an effective balance between his or her own voice and the integration of outside sources in the writing?

• Does the paper flow well? Are relationships clear? Are more transitional words and phrases needed?

• Is the style suited to the subject? Is it too formal? Too casual? Too technical? Too bland? Did the writer use simple, academic prose?Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay

• Did the writer accurately apply APA manuscript style for college papers (including header, pagination, double-spacing)?
• Is the title page correct according to the Wk1 APA 6th Edition Template?
• Is APA documentation appropriately and consistently used for in-text citations?
• Is APA documentation appropriately and consistently used for the References list?

• Did the writer avoid errors in grammar (comma splices, fragments, fused sentences, agreement, etc.), spelling, and mechanics?
• Did the writer proofread his or her work?

Informative Essay Final Draft Rubric

Name ____________________________________________

Content, Development, and Use of Research & Documentation

(50 POINTS—CONTENT) _____/70
• Clearly stated thesis, which is central to the paper
• Effective development and connection of main points of support (4-5 pages minimum)
• Adequate integration of relevant facts, examples, and evidence from sources to support each main point
• Balances support from at least five sources (i.e., does not rely too heavily on one or two sources for support)

(50 POINTS—APA) _____/40
• Correct use of APA style for in-text citations
• Correct use of APA style for references (minimum five scholarly sources)
• Correct use of APA manuscript format (including header, etc.)

Correctness _____/55 pts
• Correct spelling, punctuation, mechanics, etc.

Style: Word Choice _____/10 pts
• Concise word choice
• Appropriate level of formality (academic discourse)

Style: Sentence Structure _____/10 pts
• Variety of sentence structures and lengths
• Fragments, run-ons, and misplaced modifiers avoided

Organization _____/15 pts
• Effective introduction and conclusion
• Relationships clear among points of support and paragraphs
• Effective use of transitions
• Smooth integration of quoted/paraphrased material; sophisticated use of signal phrases Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay

TOTAL POINTS (200 points possible) _____/200 pts


Name: _____ _______________________________________________

Directions: Examine your draft carefully and answer the following questions.
Do I have the required 4 to 5 full pages of essay text (excluding title page, Y N
Reference page, or any additional pages)?
Does my paper’s document design follow the Wk1 APA 6th Edition Template Y N
(including margins, pagination, etc.) ?
Content and development:
Is my thesis statement included in the paper’ introduction? Y N
Does my thesis statement clearly articulate the main point that I Y N
support throughout the body of my paper?
Are all of the points of my paper fully developed with research support? Y N
Did I cite at least five scholarly sources in my paper? Y N
Did I avoid relying too heavily on any one or two of my sources for the Y N
bulk of my research support?
APA Guidelines:
Did I include a Reference list that precisely follows the requirements of Y N
Writer’s Reference APA-4 b? It should look like the list in
the Childhood Obesity sample paper.
Did I cite from each of the sources on my References list? Y N
Did I follow the APA in-text documentation guidelines in APA-4a, with Y N
appropriate use of in-text citations, signal phrases,
blocked quotes, etc.
Did I document appropriately whenever I quoted from a source and enclose Y N
the quote in quotation marks (unless it is in block form)?
(Warning: a “no” answer indicates plagiarism!)Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay
Did I document whenever I summarized or paraphrased material? Y N
(Warning: a “no” answer indicates plagiarism!)
Did I use effective signal phrases to lead into most research support? Y N
(See APA3-b)
Did I take all precautions to avoid plagiarism? Y N
Correctness and Style
Did I run spell check and make all necessary corrections? Y N
Did I proofread carefully (slowly and more than once) for errors, Y N
missing words, and sentences that don’t make sense?
(Note: Read aloud! You will catch more!)
Did I check sentences carefully (by reading them in isolation) for fragments Y N
and run-ons (including comma splice run-ons)?
Did I strive to use language appropriate for an academic audience? Y N
(Avoid cliches, slang, and other informal language devices.)
Did I avoid (whenever possible) starting sentences with “this is/was”, Y N
“there is/was”, “that is/was”, and “these are/were”?
(If unsure, read carefully for these starters.)
Did I avoid vague words, like “things,” “a lot,” “really,” and “very”? Y N

Provide a short paragraph here about what you are doing to make corrections to your final

The hypertensive disorders of pregnancy affect up to 8% of all gestations and are the second leading cause, after embolism, of maternal mortality in United States, accounting for almost 15% of such deaths1,2. Expectant mothers with hypertension are predisposed toward the development of potentially lethal complications, mainly abruptio placentae, disseminated intravascular coagulation, cerebral hemorrhage, hepatic failure, and acute renal failure3.Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay

Hypertension during pregnancy, particularly pre-eclampsia, is one of the major obstetrical problems in less-developed countries and the causes of most cases remain unknown4. Obstetricians are attempting to early recognize and diagnose this complication. However, biophysical and biochemical tests have been suggested to identify women who are at increased risk of developing of this complication in the future. Unfortunately, some of these tests are invasive whereas others require expensive techniques or special expertise that preclude their utility in routine screening4,5. In addition, the results of the pooled data for the various tests studied suggest that many of them have poor sensitivity and poor predictive value4,5.

Several risk factors have been described as predisponent to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy worldwide, such as: family history of preeclampsia4, preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy6,7, multifetal gestation6,8,9, obesity10,nulliparity11, diabetes11,12, chronic hypertension6,12, and extremes of maternal age4. The knowledge of the most important risk factors in our population could be useful to identify the patients who have higher chances to develop the hypertensive disorders, and, subsequently, adequate prenatal care could contribute to decrease this mortality ratio. However, reports designed to identify risk factors for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in our country are scarce13,14. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify the frequency of risk factors for hypertensive disorders in Southern Brazil.Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay


A prospective case-control study was developed considering 161 patients with hypertensive disorders and 169 control subjects matched by age and ethnicity. Subjects were recruited in the maternity of a tertiary public hospital in Southern Brazil (Hospital Nossa Senhora Conceição) and they were followed until 90 days postpartum (late puerperium), since PE can occur after childbirth. The hypertensive disorders in pregnancy were classified according to the proposal of the ACOG15. The outcome was the occurrence of mild preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, non-proteinuric gestational hypertension, chronic hypertension with mild preeclampsia superimposed and chronic hypertension with severe preeclampsia superimposed. At enrollment, a standardized questionnaire provided informations on age, weight, height, schooling (divided by levels and if completed or not), ethnicity, smoking habits, and known risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated considering the values of weight and height obtained at the first appointment, and results were described as mean BMI. All subjects gave their written informed consent to be included in the study, and protocol was approved by the ethics committee of Grupo Hospitalar Conceição and by the National Research Ethics Committee.Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay

The frequencies of risk factors were compared between groups by Fisher’s exact test, chi-square and Student’s t tests. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed by a backward conditional procedure to assess the independent role of clinical, social and demographic variables which were significantly associated with hypertensive disease in pregnancy in the univariate analysis, using the SPSS package. The variables tested in the univariate analysis included the family and the previous history of preeclampsia, multifetal gestation, BMI, nulliparity, diabetes, chronic hypertension, smoking (current smoker x non-smoker), schooling (women with at least complete fundamental level, according to Brazilian educational system, were considered as having high schooling) and prenatal care. The continuous variable (BMI) was entered as a linear factor after being tested for nonlinearity, using the SPSS package. The p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Risk Factors of Gestational Hypertension Essay