PSY635 Wk5 Transfer In Learning

PSY635 Wk5 Transfer In Learning

PSY635 Wk5 Transfer In Learning

Learning Team Assignment

Read the instructions in the University of Phoenix Material: Transfer of Learning, and select one option to complete the assignment. You can choose from the following options:


  • Option 1: Environmental and Evolutionary Psychology Presentation
  • Option 2: Environmental and Evolutionary Psychology Article
  • Option 3: Forensic Psychology Presentation
  • Option 4: Forensic Psychology Literature Article
  • Option 5: Health and Sports Psychology Presentation
  • Option 6: Health and Sports Psychology Handout
  • Option 7: Industrial/Organizational Psychology Presentation
  • Option 8: Industrial/Organizational Psychology Handout

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

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    Psych 635

    February 23, 2016

    Transfer of Learning

    Week 5 Learning Team Assignment


    Explanation of learning sets


    Learning sets facilitate learning


    Explanation of differences



    Behavioral enrichment, also known as environmental enrichment, is “the environmental enhancement of the lives of captive animals by providing them with mental and physical stimulation to increase natural and healthy behavior” (Kolifrath, 2009). Any efforts used to allow animals to behave in tone to their natural instincts or abilities are known as enrichment. When animals do not receive enrichment they become bored and may result to self-destructive behaviors and even withdraw. “The USDA requires five elements of zoo enrichment program that consist of social grouping, structure and substrate, foraging opportunities, stimulating all five senses, and training” (Kolifrath, 2009). A local zoo has asked the team to help them create naturalistic learning situation for their primate family collection. This presentation will offer an explanation of learning sets obtained from the video. It will also state how learning sets facilitate learning in both chimpanzees and humans. And include an explanation of differences shown between chimpanzees and humans in transfer of learning. PSY635 Wk5 Transfer In Learning




    General skills can be used for general problems.

    Experiences play an important part in learning.

    The monkeys used the cognitive representation by remembering what they learned from the pervious experiments

    Monkey’s applied a general rule for the learning concepts

    Transfer of learning taking place.

    Explanation of Learning Sets

    Learning sets for the animals is like trial and error, the animals then follow the new insight from what they learned. The learning sets were used on the monkey’s. Just like in the video we learned about the monkey’s being shown two object and how they received some sort of reward for choosing the right type of design. With the learning sets the monkey’s were able to gain some sort of general skill that was present when they were trying to solve similar problems. The cognitive representation was present when the monkey’s showed that they had remembered some of these traits, rules, etc. from the previous experiences that they had gone through ( getting the reward). This shows that they learned something and applied the rules that they learned to their next experience. These learning sets show that there was some sort of transfer of learning that was taking place.




    Positive-Aids learning knowledge and kill in one activity aids another


    Negative- skills are sufficiently different


    Lateral- same and knowledge skills

    In different context

    Explanation of Learning Set Cont.

    Learning sets may have three different responses. There is positive learning sets show that it aids the learning knowledge . The skills that take place in one activity helps aid one in another activity. Negative learning set is when the skills are extremely different from one activity to the next. Lateral Learning set is when the knowledge skills are the same but in different contexts ( Films Media Group, 1990).




    (Bing, 2015)


    Learning Sets Facilitate Learning

    According to the video, chimps remember general rules, especially when repeated trials are given (Further Approaches to Learning, 1996). This is easy for the chimps, simple learning sets with rewards of treats. The chimps learn the sets but do not typically transfer the learning to other tasks. Humans can learn the learning sets, some with several trials, but can easily transfer the tasks to other tasks requested. Chimps learn the tasks and continue to repeat the tasks for the rewards, but have difficulty transferring the behavior to another behavior. If a chimp is playing with a specific toy because this is what he was taught and rewarded for feeding the doll. The zoo keeper may want the chimp to understand to burp the baby doll, the chimp will need continuous prompts and rewards to complete and understand this behavior. This task is easier for a human to understand when a baby is fed, he or she will then need to be burped. This is similar to the example in the video of driving the car. When a person learns to drive a car, he or she can typically get into any vehicle and drive (Further Approaches to Learning, 1996). Chimps need to be instructed of the steps to complete the task over again. The learning process is easier for humans to understand and transfer to different tasks.


    Learning difficult or easy?

    (Bing, 2015)


    Learning Sets Facilitate Learning Cont.

    Humans learn behaviors from each other. Chimps learn behaviors and task from each other and humans. Chimps can learn human behaviors from human teachers. When entering the zoo environment, chimps can imitate human behaviors when taught by trainers. Chimps respond similar to how humans respond to learning. Chimps respond to verbal praise and rewards of treats. The treats help the chimps understand they are performing the tasks correctly. Chimps can perform simple tasks easily, where humans perform difficult task. Chimps learn to perform a task through repetitive trials but must be trained to transfer this task to another through the same motion. Where humans can take this task and transfer to another task without difficulty.


    Practical and Theoretical transfers of


    Transfer of learning through genetics

    Social beings to gain information

    Various ways of transfer learning:

    Effort, desire, and attitude.

    Cognitive, analogical reasoning, and motivation.

    Socialization, memorization, and understanding


    Transfer of Learning in Humans

    (Bing, 2015)

    Humans use the transfer of learning similar to that of chimpanzees. Humans like chimpanzees, are social beings and thrive on socialization. Both humans and chimpanzees learn as they socialize to gather information about different situations. Humans use verbal aspects such as sound, vocal cords, and language when they are learning. Learners can generalize what has been learned in a classroom to novel situations without any new learning taking place by the use of transference learning (Larsen-Freeman, 2013). Humans have a complex brain, thus allowing the use various transfer of learning aspects. Aspects of transfer learning such as audio, cognitive, memorizing, socialization, understanding, analogical reasoning, motivation, effort, desire, and other various aspects are utilized in transfer learning. Humans can also learn through genetics, in the concept that learning can be passed from one generation to another. Humans use cognitive functions as well to transfer learning in new settings. Cognitive work is needed to process experiences effectively, for transforming these experiences into encodings that are transportable , and for figuring out how these encodings can be applied to new situations (Goldstone & Day, 2012). Humans use practical and theoretical forms of transfer learning when it comes to gaining knowledge, information, skills, or abilities. Humans tend to apply their learning in new situations, thus creating the idea of the transfer or learning (Gladstone & Day, 2012).



    Use through intermanual transfer (transfer or learning)


    Transfer of learning through

    social settings


    Transfer of Learning in Chimpanzees

    (Bing, 2015)

    Chimpanzees are similar to humans in some ways, learning is developed and based on some kind of factor. Like humans, chimpanzees are highly social creatures and tend to learn through communities, or tribes, of other chimpanzees. Chimpanzees also learn from the use of verbal, cultural, passed on through generations, by observation, and other means of socialization which involve learning by the transfer of information. “Chimpanzees have evolved several motor characteristics in common with humans; including complex manipulation, use of feeding tools in the wild, corticospinal terminals in the ventral horn of the spinal cord, and the use of precision grips (Phillips, Schaeffer, & Hopkins, 2013).” PSY635 Wk5 Transfer In Learning



    Transfer of learning:

    Verbal sound

    Cultural transition



    Visual aspects

    Transfer of Learning in Chimpanzees

    (Bing, 2015)

    The use of social skills seems to be a vital way in which chimpanzees use transfer or learning. Studies have shown that chimpanzees can gain transfer of learning through generations or genetics as well as through cultures (Boesch & Tomasello, 1998). Chimpanzees also use transfer of learning through verbal settings as they tend to make certain sounds based on the situation, thus allowing for a transfer in learning to be acquired (Boesch & Tomasello, 1998). The use of verbal sound is head and can then be transferred from one chimpanzee to another to acquire learning of the situation. Along with communication that chimpanzees use, visual aspects are also used in communicational needs. Chimpanzees also use observation in learning. The observational setting of chimpanzees allows the transfer or knowledge from one to another, thus allowing the learned skill to be obtained, utilized, and remembered for future use. Chimpanzees are one of our closest relatives and thus we tend to share common, but not exact, behaviors as them when it comes to the transfer or learning (Boesch & Tomasello, 1998).



    Explanation of learning sets


    Learning sets facilitate learning


    Explanation of differences



    Social grouping refers to the concept of keeping animals in the same types of groups that they live in as wild animals. Structure and substrate is the structures and bedding materials available to the animal, for climbing on or hiding in. Foraging opportunities are feeding methods – those who allow animals to forage, or creatively search out food. The stimulation of all five senses is fairly self-explanatory. Training is a major part of enrichment in zoos. By learning to perform simple tasks, the primates are mentally stimulated. This is important, as modern research suggests that they take in a vast amount of information in their lifetime. The best enrichment is based on the need that creates a behavior, not just allowing the behavior patterns. Enrichment, interaction that stimulates an animal mentally and physically, is one of the keys to animal health. Understanding an animal’s needs and addressing them is the basis of behavioral or environmental enrichment. Transfer of learning is the ability to apply knowledge learned in one context to new contexts. Transfer of learning occurs when the learner recognizes common features among concepts, skills, or principles; link the information in memory; and sees the value of utilizing what was learned in one situation in another. If there was no transfer, animals would need to be taught every act that they would ever perform in any situation. Attempts to teach the animals to much too quickly may hinder transfer (Schunk, 2012). PSY635 Wk5 Transfer In Learning



    Boesch, C. & Tomasello M.(1998). Chimpanzee and Human Cultures. Current Anthropology. Retrieved from


    Further Approaches to Learning [Video File] (1996). In Files on Demand. Retrieved February 19, 2015. from


    Gladstone, R. L. & Day, S. B., (2012). Introduction to “New Conceptualizations of Transfer of Learning.” Retrieved from http ://


    Clip art retrieved from Bing, (2015)




    Hopper, L., Lambeth, S., Schapiro, S., Whiten, A. (2008). Observational learning in chimpanzees and children studied through ‘ghost’ conditions. Biological Sciences 275(1636), 835-840.


    Kolifrath, J. (2009). Behavioral and Environmental Animal Enrichment. Animals Make Us Human: Creating the Best Life for Animals. Temple Grandin, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing. Retrieved from


    Phillips, K. A., Schaeffer, J. A., Hopkins, W. D. (2013). Corpus callosal microstructure influences intermanual transfer in chimpanzees. US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from