Lifespan 7-8 Discussion Assignment

Lifespan 7-8 Discussion Assignment

Lifespan 7-8 Discussion Assignment

Respond to the following questions. This assignment is worth 5  points. Make sure that you use complete sentences, college-level grammar  and that you have completely thought about your response.


  1. What is myelination? What is the role of myelin in physical development?
  2. What are centration and conservation according to Piaget? How are centration and conservation related?
  3. Tisha is talking to her grandmother on the phone when she sees a  beautiful cardinal light on the tree branch just outside the window. She  says, “Look, Grammy, look at the bird!” What would Piaget call this  error?
    • Rowen has two teddy bears. He talks to them and they talk to each  other. They all eat lunch together and have fine conversations. What  would Piaget call this behavior?
    • Three-year-old Johnny is crying. His mother gave both he and his  one-year-old brother a cookie, but she broke his baby brother’s cookie  into two pieces which Johnny believes gave him more. What would Piaget  call this error?
  4. According to Vygotsky, how should you teach a young child to ride a two-wheeled bicycle?


Respond to the following. This assignment is worth 5 points. Make  sure that you use complete sentences, college-level grammar and that you  have completely thought about your response.

  1. When do children understand that different people can feel differently about an event?
  2. Mom is in a hurry. It is always a rule that she and Les say  goodbye to the puppy before leaving the house, but there is no time  today. Les whines, complains and cries concerning the rule that was  broken. According to Piaget Les is exhibiting _________________ moral  reasoning.
  3. At what age are boys more liking to play with larger groups of  boys while girls still tend to prefer to play with one or two friends?
  4. Give an example, not the definition, of authoritarian parenting,  authoritative parenting, neglectful parenting, and indulgent parenting.  Describe the children of each type of parent.
  • attachment



    John W. Santrock

    ©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.




    Chapter 7

    Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood

    ©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Lifespan 7-8 Discussion Assignment


    Chapter Outline

    Physical Changes

    Cognitive Changes

    Language Development

    Early Childhood Education


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Physical Changes

    Body growth and change

    Motor development


    Nutrition and exercise

    Illness and death


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Body Growth and Change (1 of 2)

    Height and weight

    Average growth is 2.5 inches and 5–10 pounds per year during early childhood.

    Growth patterns vary individually.

    Two most important contributors to height differences

    Ethnic origin


    Growth hormone deficiency: absence of growth hormone produced by the pituitary gland to stimulate the body to grow. Lifespan 7-8 Discussion Assignment


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Body Growth and Change (2 of 2)

    The brain

    Brain growth slows during early childhood.

    Brain reaches 95 percent of adult volume by 6 years.

    Changes in child’s brain structure

    Myelination: nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells

    Increases speed at which information travels through nervous system

    Rapid, distinct spurts of growth, especially in the frontal lobes


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    A Myelinated Nerve Fiber

    ©Steve Gschmeissner/Science Source



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Motor Development (1 of 3)

    Most preschool children are more active than they will ever be at any later period in the life span.

    Gross motor skills

    Simple movements at age 3

    More adventurous at age 4

    Hair-raising risks at age 5


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Motor Development (2 of 3)

    Fine motor skills

    Still clumsy at 3 years

    Improved fine motor coordination at 4 years

    Body coordination by 5 years


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Motor Development (3 of 3)

    Perceptual development

    Age 3–4 years: detection of boundaries between colors

    Age 4–5 years: children can focus eyes and sustain attention effectively on close-up objects. Lifespan 7-8 Discussion Assignment


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.




    Recommended sleep: 11–13 hours each night without interruption

    Disorders: narcolepsy, insomnia, nightmares

    Sleep problems and negative outcomes

    Attention problems

    Worse school readiness

    more so with increased screen time

    Being overweight

    Social problems


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Nutrition and Exercise (1 of 2)

    Overweight young children

    Serious health problems in early childhood

    Strongly influenced by caregivers’ behavior

    Categories for obesity, overweight, and at risk for being overweight

    Determined by body mass index (BMI)

    United States has second highest rate of childhood obesity.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Nutrition and Exercise (2 of 2)

    Malnutrition in young children from low-income families

    11 million preschool children are experiencing malnutrition.

    Biggest problem is iron deficiency anemia

    Exercise should occur daily.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Illness and Death (1 of 2)

    The United States

    Leading causes of death in U.S. children are

    Accidents (unintentional injuries)

    Congenital malformations


    Chromosomal abnormalities

    Children’s safety

    Environmental tobacco smoke


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Illness and Death (2 of 2)

    State of illness and health of the world’s children

    Devastating effects of health occur in countries with high poverty rates.

    Dramatic increase in deaths due to HIV/AIDS, especially in poor countries.

    ©Kent Page/AP Images



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Cognitive Changes

    Piaget’s preoperational stage

    Vygotsky’s theory

    Information processing


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Piaget’s Preoperational Stage (1 of 3)

    Preoperational stage

    Piaget’s second stage

    Ages 2–7 years

    Children represent the world with words, images, and drawings.

    Form stable concepts and begin to reason

    Cognitions are dominated by egocentrism and magical beliefs

    “The Symbolic Drawings of Young Children,” Courtesy of D. Wolf and J. Nove. Copyright Dennie Palmer Wolf, Annenberg Institute, Brown University. All rights reserved. Used with permission.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    A 3 year old draws a symbolic pelican and an 11 year old draws a realistic tree.


    Piaget’s Preoperational Stage (2 of 3)

    Operations: reversible mental actions that allow children to do mentally what they formerly did physically

    Symbolic function substage: child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present

    Egocentrism: inability to distinguish one’s own perspective from someone else’s

    Animism: belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action. Lifespan 7-8 Discussion Assignment


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Piaget’s Preoperational Stage (3 of 3)

    Intuitive thought substage: children use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to questions.

    Ages 4–7 years

    Centration and the limits of preoperational thought

    Centration: centering attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others

    Conservation: altering a substance’s appearance does not change its basic properties


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    The Three Mountains Task


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Piaget’s Conservation Task

    Access the text alternative for this image.

    ©Tony Freeman/PhotoEdit



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Some Dimensions of Conservation: Number, Matter, and Length (1 of 4)

    Type of Conservation: number

    Initial Presentation: two identical rows of objects are shown to the child, who agrees they have same number

    Manipulation: one row is lengthened, and child is asked whether one row now has more objects.

    Preoperational Child’s Answer: “Yes, the longer row”




    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Some Dimensions of Conservation: Number, Matter, and Length (2 of 4)

    Type of Conservation: matter

    Initial Presentation: two identical balls of clay are shown to the child. The child agrees they are equal.

    Manipulation: experimenter changes the shape of one ball and asks child whether they still contain equal amounts of clay

    Preoperational Child’s Answer: “No, the longer one has more”



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Some Dimensions of Conservation: Number, Matter, and Length (3 of 4)

    Type of Conservation: length

    Initial Presentation: two sticks are aligned in front of the child. Child agrees they are the same length.

    Manipulation: experimenter moves one stick to the right, then asks child if they are equal in length

    Preoperational Child’s Answer: “No, the one on the top is longer”



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Some Dimensions of Conservation: Number, Matter, and Length (4 of 4)


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (1 of 2)

    Children think and understand primarily through social interaction.

    Zone of proximal development (ZPD): range of tasks too difficult for the child alone but that can be learned with guidance

    Scaffolding: changing the level of support


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (2 of 2)

    ©Ariel Skelley/Blend Images


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Vygotsky’s Theory (1 of 3)

    Language and thought

    Children use speech to communicate socially and to help them solve tasks.

    Private speech: use of language for self-regulation

    Inner speech becomes their thoughts

    More private speech = more social competence


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Vygotsky’s Theory (2 of 3)

    Teaching strategies: Vygotsky’s theory can be applied to education

    Assess child’s ZPD

    Use the child’s ZPD in teaching

    Use more-skilled peers as teachers

    Place instruction in meaningful context

    Transform classroom with Vygotskian ideas


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Vygotsky’s Theory (3 of 3)

    Evaluating Vygotsky’s theory

    Social constructivist approach: emphasizes social contexts of learning and asserts that knowledge is mutually built and constructed through social interaction


    Not specific enough about age-related changes

    Does not describe how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development

    Overemphasized the role of language in thinking. Lifespan 7-8 Discussion Assignment


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Comparison of Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s Theories

    Sociocultural Context Strong Emphasis Little Emphasis
    Constructivism Social constructivist Cognitive constructivist
    Stages No general stages of development proposed Strong emphasis on stages (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational)
    Key Processes Zone of proximal development, language, dialogue, tools of the culture Schema, assimilation, accommodation, operations, conservation, classification
    Role of Language A major role; language plays a powerful role in shaping thought Language has a minimal role; cognition primarily directs language
    View on Education Education plays a central role, helping children learn the tools of the culture Education merely refines the child’s cognitive skills that have already emerged
    Teaching Implications Many opportunities for children to learn with the teacher and more-skilled peers Also views teacher as a facilitator and guide, not a director; provide support for children to explore their world and discover knowledge


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Information Processing (1 of 3)

    Attention: focusing of mental resources on select information

    Executive attention

    Action planning

    Allocating attention to goals

    Error detection and compensation

    Monitoring progress on tasks

    Dealing with difficult circumstances


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Information Processing (2 of 3)

    Sustained attention: focused and extended engagement with object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment

    Deficiencies in attention

    Salient versus relevant dimensions

    Planfulness of attention

    Six-year-olds have fragmentary planfulness of attention

    Older children are more detailed and accurate.



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Information Processing (3 of 3)

    Memory: retention of information over time

    Short term: individuals can retain information up to 30 seconds with no rehearsal

    Assessing short-term memory

    Memory-span task


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Developmental Changes in Memory Span


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Information Processing (1 of 4)

    How accurate are young children’s long-term memories?

    There are age differences in children’s susceptibility to suggestion.

    There are individual differences in susceptibility.

    Interviewing techniques can produce substantial distortions in children’s reports about highly salient events.

    Accuracy of testimony is dependent on type, number, and intensity of suggestive techniques experienced


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Information Processing (2 of 4)

    Autobiographical memory

    Involves memory of significant events and experiences in one’s life

    In some areas (remembering a story, a song, or interesting event or experience), young children have been shown to have reasonably good memories. Lifespan 7-8 Discussion Assignment


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Information Processing (3 of 4)

    Executive functioning: higher-level cognitive processes linked to the development of the brain’s prefrontal cortex

    Children manage thoughts to engage in goal-directed behavior and self-control.

    “The Marshmallow Experiment”

    Using self-distraction to delay gratification for the purpose of receiving two marshmallows on a researcher’s return linked to later success in life


    ©Amy Kiley Photography


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Information Processing (4 of 4)

    Theory of mind: awareness of one’s own mental process and the mental processes of others

    Developmental changes

    Age 18 months to 3 years: children begin to understand three mental states

    Perceptions, desires, and emotions

    Age 3–5 years: children understand false beliefs

    Age 5–9 years: deepening appreciation of the mind

    Age 7+ years: understand the beliefs and thoughts of others

    Individual differences and factors influencing Theory of Mind

    Executive function and advances in prefrontal cortex functioning

    Language development

    Higher socioeconomic status family

    Children with autism have difficulty developing a theory of mind.



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Developmental Changes in False-Belief Performance


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Language Development

    Understanding phonology and morphology

    Changes in syntax and semantics

    Advances in pragmatics

    Young children’s literacy


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Understanding Phonology and Morphology

    During preschool years, children

    Become sensitive to the sounds of spoken words

    Produce all the sounds of their language

    Demonstrate a knowledge of morphology rules

    Use plurals, possessives, prepositions, articles, and verb forms


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Stimuli in Berko’s Study of Young Children’s Understanding of Morphological Rules

    Young children can intuit morphological rules.

    Children were shown pictures of a bird-like “wug.”

    When asked what two of them were, children responded, “Wugs.”


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Changes in Syntax and Semantics (1 of 2)

    Fast mapping: process in which young children learn the connection between a word and its referent quickly

    Learn and apply rules of syntax


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Changes in Syntax and Semantics (2 of 2)

    Six key principles in young children’s vocabulary development

    Children learn the words

    They hear most often

    For things and events that interest them

    Better in responsive and interactive contexts than in passive contexts

    Best in contexts that are meaningful

    Best when they access clear information about word meaning

    Best when grammar and vocabulary are considered


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Advances in Pragmatics

    Adapt their speech in different settings

    Young children’s literacy

    Positive orientation toward reading and writing must be developed.

    Importance of early language skills

    Phonological awareness

    Readiness for school

    Reading achievement in high school


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Young Children’s Literacy

    Books can be valuable tool

    Use books to initiate conversation

    Use “what” and “why” questions

    Encourage children to ask questions about stories

    Include books that play with language


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Early Childhood Education (1 of 2)

    Variations in early childhood education


    Education for young children who are disadvantaged


    Controversies in early childhood education


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Early Childhood Education (2 of 2)

    Education for young children who are disadvantaged

    Project Head Start: compensatory program designed to provide children from low-income families

    Opportunity to acquire the skills and experiences important for success in school

    Controversies in early childhood education

    Curriculum controversy

    Academic approaches pressure young children to achieve, don’t provide chances to actively construct knowledge, and don’t focus on cognitive and socioemotional development.

    Universal preschool education

    Critics: more important to improve preschool education for disadvantaged children.

    Controversy continues around implementing universal preschool education.



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Variations in Early Childhood Education (1 of 2)

    Child-centered kindergarten: education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development

    Kindergartens focused on developmental status of 4 and 5 year olds emphasize experimenting, exploring, discovering, trying out, restructuring, speaking, and listening.

    Montessori approach: child is given freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities and develops cognitive skills

    Criticisms: it deemphasizes verbal interactions, restricts imaginative play, and may not allow for creativity and a variety of learning styles. Lifespan 7-8 Discussion Assignment



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Variations in Early Childhood Education (2 of 2)

    Developmentally appropriate and inappropriate education

    Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP): typical developmental patterns of children and the uniqueness of each child

    Generalizing about developmentally appropriate education is challenging.

    Developmentally appropriate education is an evolving concept.

    Sociocultural factors are taking on more importance.

    Consideration about teacher’s involvement


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Accessibility Content: Text Alternatives for Images



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Piaget’s Conservation Task Text Alternative

    Piaget’s conservation task tests a child’s ability to think operationally or mentally reverse actions and understand the concept of conservation. A child watches liquid poured from a short beaker into a taller, thinner one. When asked which has more liquid, the child points to the taller and thinner one, demonstrating a lack of conservation. The child doesn’t yet understand that the amount of liquid doesn’t change because of the beaker’s shape.

    Return to slide containing original image.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Developmental Changes in False-Belief Performance Text Alternative

    By age 5, most children realize that people can have false beliefs contradicting reality. Two-and-a-half-year-olds gave incorrect responses about 80 percent of the time. At almost 4, they were correct about 50 percent of the time, and after that responses were increasingly correct.

    Return to slide containing original image.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

  • attachment



    John W. Santrock

    ©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.




    Chapter 8

    Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood

    ©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


    Chapter Outline

    Emotional and Personality Development


    Peer Relations, Play, and Media/Screen Time


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Emotional and Personality Development

    Children’s developing minds and social experiences produce remarkable advances in the development of

    the self

    emotional development

    moral development


    ©Kevin Dodge/Corbis/Getty Images



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    The Self (1 of 3)

    Erikson’s psychosocial stages associated with early childhood


    Initiative versus guilt

    Children use perceptual, motor, cognitive, and language skills to make things happen.

    Children exuberantly move out into wider social world on their own initiative.

    The great governor of initiative is conscience.

    Initiative and enthusiasm may bring guilt, which lowers self-esteem.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    The Self (2 of 3)

    Self-understanding and understanding others

    Increased awareness reflects young children’s expanding psychological sophistication.

    Self-understanding: substance and content of self-conceptions

    Physical activities: central component of the self in early childhood

    Tend to confuse ability and effort

    Unrealistically positive self descriptions, which are self-protective

    Better basic understanding of emotions in early childhood enabled children to develop more advanced understanding of others’ perspectives.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    The Self (3 of 3)

    Understanding others

    Children start perceiving others in terms of psychological traits.

    Children begin to develop an understanding for joint commitments.

    Young children are not as egocentric as depicted in Piaget’s theory.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Emotional Development (1 of 4)

    Growing self-awareness is linked to feeling.

    Growing self-awareness is linked to expanding and expressing a range of emotions

    Young children experience many emotions during the day.

    Emotional development allows for ability to make sense of other people’s emotional reactions and control their own. Lifespan 7-8 Discussion Assignment


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Emotional Development (2 of 4)

    Expressing emotions

    Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt are examples of self-conscious emotions.

    During the early childhood years, pride and guilt become more common.

    Influenced by parents’ responses to children’s behavior, for example, “ You should feel bad about biting your sister.”


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Emotional Development (3 of 4)

    Understanding emotions

    Children’s understanding of emotion linked to increase in prosocial behavior

    Children begin to understand that same event can elicit different feelings in different people.

    By age 5, most children show more ability to reflect on emotions and growing awareness of the need to manage emotions according to social standards.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Emotional Development (4 of 4)

    Regulating emotions

    Plays a key role in children’s ability to manage the demands and conflicts they face in interacting with others

    Parents can be described as taking an emotion-coaching or an emotion-dismissing approach to help children regulate emotions.

    Ability to modulate emotions benefits children in their relationships with peers.

    ©Jamie Grill/Getty Images



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Moral Development (1 of 5)

    Involves thoughts, feelings, and behavior regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people

    Moral feelings

    Feelings of anxiety and guilt are central to the account of moral development.

    Emotions and guilt can motivate behavior.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Moral Development (2 of 5)

    Moral reasoning

    Heteronomous morality: the first stage of moral development in Piaget’s theory, occurring from approximately 4–7 years of age

    Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people.

    Autonomous morality: in Piaget’s theory, older children (~10 years of age and older) become aware that rules and laws are created by people

    When judging an action, one should consider the actor’s intentions as well as the consequences.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Moral Development (3 of 5)

    Immanent justice: concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately

    Parent–child relations in which parents have the power and children do not are less likely to advance moral reasoning.

    Rules are handed down in an authoritarian manner.

    ©Fuse/Getty Images



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Moral Development (4 of 5)

    Moral behavior

    Processes of reinforcement, punishment, and imitation explain the development of moral behavior.

    Situation influences behavior.

    Cognitive factors are important in the child’s development of self-control.

    Conscience: internal regulation of standards of right and wrong that involves integrating moral thought, feeling, and behavior


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Moral Development (5 of 5)

    Parenting and young children’s moral development

    Aspects of parent and child relationships contributing to children’s moral development

    Relational quality

    Parental discipline

    Proactive strategies

    Conversational dialogue


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Gender (1 of 3)

    Gender identity: the sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by 2½ years

    Gender role: a cultural set of expectations that prescribes how females or males should think, act, feel

    Gender typing: acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

    (Left) ©altrendo images/Getty Images; (right) ©Cindy Charles/PhotoEdit



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Gender (2 of 3)

    Biological influences




    Social influences

    Social theories of gender

    Social role theory: gender differences result from contrasting roles of women and men

    Psychoanalytic theory of gender: preschool child develops a sexual attraction to opposite-sex parent

    Social cognitive theory: children’s gender development occurs through observation and imitation of others’ words and actions. Lifespan 7-8 Discussion Assignment


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Gender (3 of 3)

    Parental influences

    Mothers’ socialization strategies for daughters to be obedient restrict autonomy

    Fathers’ socialization strategies for sons to engage in activities promote intellectual development

    Peer influences

    Preschoolers prefer socializing with same gender.

    Group size: boys tend to create larger clusters

    Interaction in same-sex groups: boys tend to competitively play; girls tend to have conversations

    Cognitive influences

    Gender schema theory: children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.





    Child maltreatment

    Sibling relationships and other birth order

    The changing family in a changing society


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Parenting (1 of 5)

    Parents as compared to nonparents

    are typically more satisfied with their lives

    feel relatively better on a daily basis

    have more positive feelings toward children and daily activities

    Recent study: 1/2 of fathers and 1/4 of mothers report feeling they are not spending enough time with their children


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Parenting (2 of 5)

    Baumrind’s parenting styles

    Authoritarian parenting

    Parents exhort child to follow directions and respect their work and effort

    Allows little verbal exchange

    Associated with children’s social incompetence

    Linked to child’s higher level of aggression

    Authoritative parenting

    Encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions

    Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed

    Associated with children’s social competence

    Children are more prosocial


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Parenting (3 of 5)

    Neglectful parenting

    Parent is uninvolved in the child’s life

    Associated with children’s social incompetence and lack of self-control

    Children externalize problems

    Indulgent parenting

    Parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them

    Associated with children’s social incompetence and lack of self-control

    Associated with children not respecting others

    Children may be domineering, egocentric, noncompliant, and have difficulties in peer relations


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Parenting (4 of 5)

    Parenting styles in context

    Authoritative parenting conveys the most benefits to the child and to the family as a whole.

    Parenting is reciprocal socialization and synchrony: children socialize parents, and parents socialize children

    Consistent parenting is recommended; however, flexibility in style is warranted depending on the situation.

    Research about parenting styles mostly on mothers, not fathers, who often are authoritarian in comparison

    Consistent parenting styles are most beneficial.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Parenting (5 of 5)


    Corporal punishment is linked to

    Higher level of child’s behavioral problems

    Higher levels of aggression as children and adolescents

    Higher incidence of intimate partner violence as adults

    Fear of parent

    Best to handle misbehavior by reasoning with child and explaining consequences of child’s actions for others

    Coparenting: support that parents give each other in raising a child


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Classification of Parenting Styles

    Parenting Styles Accepting, Responsive Rejecting, Unresponsive
    Demanding, controlling Authoritative Authoritarian
    Undemanding, uncontrolling Indulgent Neglectful

    ©Steve Debenport/Getty Images



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    © Ariel Skelley/Corbis


    Child Maltreatment (1 of 2)

    Types of child maltreatment

    Physical abuse

    Child neglect

    Sexual abuse

    Emotional abuse

    Context of abuse

    Among the family and family-associated characteristics that may contribute to child maltreatment are parenting stress, substance abuse, social isolation, single parenting, and socioeconomic difficulties.

    About 1/3 of parents who were abused themselves when they were young go on to abuse their own children.



    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Child Maltreatment (2 of 2)


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Developmental Consequences of Abuse

    Poor emotion regulation, attachment problems, poor peer relations, difficulty in adapting to school, depression

    Physical abuse linked to diminished cognitive development and school participation

    Engaging in violent behavior and substance abuse

    Engaging in violent romantic relationships, delinquency, sexual risk taking, substance abuse

    Increase in 13- to 18-year-olds’ suicide ideation, plans, attempts


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Sibling Relationships and Birth Order

    Sibling relationships

    Important characteristics

    Emotional quality of the relationship

    Familiarity and intimacy of the relationship

    Variation in sibling relationships

    Birth order

    Compared with later-born children, firstborn children have been described as more adult-oriented, helpful, conforming, and self-controlled.

    Only children often are achievement-oriented.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Changing Family in a Changing Society (1 of 7)

    Working parents

    More than one of every two U.S. mothers with a child under the age of 5 is in the workforce.

    Children of working mothers engage in less gender stereotyping and have more egalitarian views of gender than do children of nonworking mothers.

    More recent study found negative associations with father’s employment but not mother’s employment.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Changing Family in a Changing Society (2 of 7)


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Changing Family in a Changing Society (3 of 7)

    Children in divorced families

    show poorer adjustment than their counterparts in never-divorced families

    New research indicates that experiencing divorce during childhood was linked to worse cohabitating/material relationships from 16 to 30.

    Also influenced by SES at birth

    Also influenced by experiences of childhood sexual abuse

    Parental divorce and child maltreatment linked to midlife suicidal ideation


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Changing Family in a Changing Society (4 of 7)

    Many problems children experience after parents divorce date to before the divorce.

    Frequent noncustodial parent visits benefit children.

    Children with difficult temperament have problems coping with divorce. The opposite is also true.

    Coparenting after divorce helps children adjust, reduces anxiety and depression, and increases self-esteem and academic performance.

    Divorced mothers often lose income and experience increased workloads, high rates of job instability, and high rates of moving.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Changing Family in a Changing Society (5 of 7)

    Gay and lesbian parents compared to heterosexual parents

    Few differences between children growing up in homosexual families

    No differences in peer relationships, mental health adjustment

    Cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic variations

    Trends toward greater family mobility, migration to urban areas

    Minority parents tend to have less education and may live in low-income circumstances.


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Changing Family in a Changing Society (6 of 7)

    Lower-SES parents

    More concerned that their children conform to society’s expectations

    Create a home atmosphere in which it is clear that parents have authority over children, among others

    Use more physical punishment

    Are more directive and less conversational

    ©Jens Kalaene/picture-alliance/dpa/AP Images


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Changing Family in a Changing Society (7 of 7)

    Higher-SES parents

    More concerned with developing children’s initiative and delay of gratification

    Less likely to use physical punishment

    Create a home atmosphere in which children are more nearly equal participants and in which rules are discussed

    Are less directive and more conversational

    ©Andres Rodriguez/Getty Images


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time (1 of 8)

    Peer relations

    Give children information and comparison about the world outside their family.

    Good peer relations are necessary for normal socioemotional development.

    Developmentally, children start spending time with same gender.

    Children make friends of all ethnic groups.

    Parents’ lifestyle decisions determine their children’s friend choices. Lifespan 7-8 Discussion Assignment


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time (2 of 8)


    Play therapy is used to allow the child to work off frustrations and to analyze the child’s conflicts and ways of coping with them.

    Provides important context for development of language and communication skills.

    Children have less unconstructed play time and need more time for play for development.

    ©Dann Tardif/Corbis/Getty Images


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time (3 of 8)

    Connected Worlds of Parent–Child and Peer Relationships

    Parents influence children’s peer relationships directly and indirectly

    Basic life decisions

    Attachment and security

    Play’s Function

    Important aspect of development

    Play therapy: allows children to work off frustrations and analyze children’s conflicts and ways of coping

    Important context for cognitive development, exploration, and language development


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time (4 of 8)

    Types of Play

    Sensorimotor: infants derive pleasure from exercising their existing sensorimotor schemas

    Practice: involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned

    Pretense/symbolic: transforming physical environment into symbols

    Social: involves interaction with peers

    Constructive: combines sensorimotor/practice play with symbolic representation

    Games: activities are engaged in for pleasure and have rules


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time (5 of 8)

    Television strongly influences children’s development

    Children also use other media

    Screen time: includes how much time individual spends with television, DVDs, computers, video games, and mobile devices

    Young children’s use of mobile devices dramatically increased 2011–2013

    playing games using apps

    watching videos

    watching TV/movies


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time (6 of 8)

    Playful learning and cognitive development


    Abstract thinking

    Imagination, attention

    Concentration and persistence

    Problem-solving, social cognition

    Empathy and perspective taking


    Mastery of new concepts



    Playful learning and socioemotional development





    Sharing and turn-taking

    Anxiety reduction




    ©McGraw-Hill Education.

    Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time (7 of 8)

    Many 2- to 4-year-olds spend 2–4 hours/day watching TV, more time than they spend with parents


    Children and Television: American Academy of Pediatrics

    2- to 5-years olds should watch maximum of 1 hour of TV per day, watching high-quality programs, for example, Sesame Street and PBS shows.

    Can teach children positive, prosocial behavior

    Linked to higher obesity rates in children and adolescents

    Linked to violent and aggressive behavior. Lifespan 7-8 Discussion Assignment


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.



    Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time (8 of 8)

    Media/Screen Time

    Best types of educational apps parents can purchase for children

    Active involvement



    Social interaction

    ©Miguel Sanz/Getty Images


    ©McGraw-Hill Education.