Human Development Personal Response Paper

Human Development Personal Response Paper

Human Development Personal Response Paper

Textbook, pages 253-256 (LO 6.16: Parenting Styles):



Parents are a key part of children’s lives everywhere, but how parents view their role and their approaches to discipline and punishment vary widely. First, we look at an influential model of parenting “styles” based on American parenting, then we look at views of parenting based in other cultures.

Parenting “Styles”

LO 6.16 Specify the four types of parenting “styles” and identify the cultural limitations of this model.

Have you heard the joke about the man who, before he had any children, had five theories about how they should be raised? Ten years later he had five children and no theories.

Well, jokes aside, most parents do have ideas about how best to raise children, even after they have had children for awhile (Harkness et al., 2015; Tamis-LeMonda et al., 2008). In research, the investigation of this topic has often involved the study of parenting styles; that is, the practices that parents exhibit in relation to their children and their beliefs about those practices. This research originated in the United States and has involved mainly American children and their parents, although it has now been applied in some other countries as well.

Four Parenting Styles

For over 50 years, American scholars have engaged in research on parenting styles, and the results have been quite consistent (Bornstein & Bradley, 2014; Collins & Laursen, 2004; Maccoby & Martin, 1983). Virtually all prominent scholarship on parenting has described it in terms of two dimensions: demandingness and responsiveness (also known by other terms such as control and warmth). Parental demandingness is the degree to which parents set down rules and expectations for behavior and require their children to comply with them. Parental responsiveness is the degree to which parents are sensitive to their children’s needs and express love, warmth, and concern.

Various scholars have combined these two dimensions to describe different kinds of parenting styles. For many years, the best known and most widely used conception of parenting styles was the one articulated by Diana Baumrind (1968, 1971, 1991). Her research on middle-class White American families, along with the research of other scholars inspired by her ideas, has identified four distinct parenting styles (Collins & Laursen, 2004; Maccoby & Martin, 1983; Pinquart, 2017; Steinberg, 2000). Human Development Personal Response Paper

Authoritative parents are high in demandingness and high in responsiveness. They set clear rules and expectations for their children. Furthermore, they make clear what the consequences will be if their children do not comply, and they make those consequences stick if necessary. However, authoritative parents do not simply “lay down the law” and then enforce it rigidly. A distinctive feature of authoritative parents is that they explain the reasons for their rules and expectations to their children, and they willingly engage in discussion with their children over issues of discipline, sometimes leading to negotiation and compromise. For example, a child who wants to eat a whole bag of candy would not simply be told “No!” by an authoritative parent but something like, “No, it wouldn’t be healthy and it would be bad for your teeth.” Authoritative parents are also loving and warm toward their children, and they respond to what their children need and desire.

Authoritarian parents are high in demandingness but low in responsiveness. They require obedience from their children, and they punish disobedience without compromise. None of the verbal give-and-take common with authoritative parents is allowed by authoritarian parents. They expect their commands to be followed without dispute or dissent. To continue with the candy example, the authoritarian parent would respond to the child’s request for a bag of candy simply by saying “No!” with no explanation. Also, authoritarian parents show little in the way of love or warmth toward their children. Their demandingness takes place without responsiveness, in a way that shows little emotional attachment and may even be hostile.

Permissive parents are low in demandingness and high in responsiveness. They have few clear expectations for their children’s behavior, and they rarely discipline them. Instead, their emphasis is on responsiveness. They believe that children need love that is truly “unconditional.” They may see discipline and control as having the potential to damage their children’s healthy tendencies for developing creativity and expressing themselves however they wish. They provide their children with love and warmth and give them a great deal of freedom to do as they please.

Disengaged parents are low in both demandingness and responsiveness. Their goal may be to minimize the amount of time and emotion they devote to parenting. Thus, they require little of their children and rarely bother to correct their behavior or place clear limits on what they are allowed to do. They also express little in the way of love or concern for their children. They may seem to have little emotional attachment to them. Table 6.1 provides a summary of the four styles of parenting.

The Effects of Parenting Styles on Children

A great deal of research has been conducted on how parenting styles influence children’s development. In general, authoritative parenting is associated with the most favorable outcomes, at least by American standards. Children who have authoritative parents tend to be independent, self-assured, creative, and socially skilled (Baumrind, 1991; Collins & Laursen, 2004; Steinberg, 2000; Williams et al., 2009). They also tend to do well in school and to get along well with their peers and with adults (Hastings et al., 2007; Spera, 2005). Authoritative parenting helps children develop characteristics such as empathy, optimism and self-regulation that in turn have positive effects on a wide range of behaviors (Jackson et al., 2005; O’Reilly & Peterson, 2014; Purdie et al., 2004).

All the other parenting styles are associated with some negative outcomes, although the type of negative outcome varies depending on the specific parenting style (Baumrind, 1991; Pinquart, 2017). Children with authoritarian parents tend to be less self-assured, less creative, and less socially adept than other children. Boys with authoritarian parents are more often aggressive and unruly, whereas girls are more often anxious and unhappy (Bornstein & Bradley, 2014; Russell et al., 2003). Children with permissive parents tend to be immature and lack self-control. Because they lack self-control, they have difficulty getting along with peers and teachers (Linver et al., 2002). Children with disengaged parents tend to be impulsive. Partly as a consequence of their impulsiveness, and partly because disengaged parents do little to monitor their activities, children with disengaged parents tend to have higher rates of behavior problems (Pelaez et al., 2008). Table 6.2 provides a summary of the different child behaviors associated with each of the four styles of parenting. Human Development Personal Response Paper

A More Complex Picture of Parenting Effects

Although parents undoubtedly affect their children profoundly by their parenting, the process is not nearly as simple as the cause-and-effect model just described. Sometimes discussions of parenting make it sound as though Parenting Style A automatically and inevitably produces Child Type X. However, enough research has taken place by now to indicate that the relationship between parenting styles and children’s development is considerably more complex than that (Bornstein & Bradley, 2014; Lamb & Lewis, 2005; Parke & Buriel, 2006; Pinquart, 2017). Not only are children affected by their parents, but parents are affected by their children. This principle is referred to by scholars as reciprocal or bidirectional effects between parents and children (Combs-Ronto et al., 2009).A photo shows a little girl screaming while a woman behind her looks away.How does the idea of reciprocal effects complicate claims of the effects of parenting styles?

Recall our discussion of evocative genotype → environment effects in Chapter 2. Children are not like billiard balls that head predictably in the direction they are propelled. They bring personalities and desires of their own to the parent–child relationship. Thus, children may evoke certain behaviors from their parents. An especially aggressive child may evoke authoritarian parenting; perhaps the parents find that authoritative explanations of the rules are simply ignored, and their responsiveness diminishes as a result of the child’s repeated disobedience and disruptiveness. An especially mild-tempered child may evoke permissive parenting, because parents may see no point in setting specific rules for a child who has no inclination to do anything wrong anyway.

Does this research discredit the claim that parenting styles influence children? No, but it does modify it. Parents certainly have beliefs about what is best for their children, and they try to express those beliefs through their parenting behavior (Alwin, 1988; Harkness et al., 2015; Way et al., 2007). However, parents’ actual behavior is affected not only by what they believe is best but also by how their children behave toward them and respond to their parenting (Knafo-Noam et al., 2019). Being an authoritative parent is easier if your child responds to your demandingness and responsiveness with compliance and love, and not so easy if your love is rejected and your rules and the reasons you provide for them are rejected. Parents whose efforts to persuade their children through reasoning and discussion fall on deaf ears may be tempted either to demand compliance (and become more authoritarian) or to give up trying (and become permissive or disengaged).

Parenting Styles Worldwide

So far we have looked at the parenting styles research based mainly on White middle-class American families. What does research worldwide indicate about parenting and its effects in early childhood?

One important observation is the rarity of the authoritative parenting style (Bornstein & Bradley, 2014; Harkness et al., 2015). Remember, a distinctive feature of authoritative parents is that they do not rely on the authority of the parental role to ensure that children comply with their commands and instructions. They do not simply declare the rules and expect to be obeyed. On the contrary, authoritative parents explain the reasons for what they want children to do and engage in discussion over the guidelines for their children’s behavior (Baumrind, 1971, 1991; Steinberg & Levine, 1997).

Outside of the West, however, this is an extremely rare way of parenting. In traditional cultures, parents expect their authority to be obeyed, without question and without requiring an explanation (LeVine et al., 2008; LeVine & LeVine, 2016). This is true in nearly all developing countries as well as developed countries outside the West, most notably Asian countries such as Japan and South Korea (Tseng, 2004; Zhang & Fuligni, 2006). Asian cultures have a tradition of filial piety, meaning that children are expected to respect, obey, and revere their parents throughout life (Lieber et al., 2004; Lum et al., 2016). The role of parent carries greater inherent authority than it does in the West. Parents are not supposed to provide reasons why they should be respected and obeyed. The simple fact that they are parents and their children are children is viewed as sufficient justification for their authority.

In Latin American cultures, too, the authority of parents is viewed as paramount. The Latino cultural belief system places a premium on the idea of respeto, which emphasizes respect for and obedience to parents and elders, especially the father (Cabrera & Garcia Coll, 2004; Espinoza-Hernández et al., 2017). The role of the parent is considered to be enough to command authority, without requiring that the parents explain their rules to their children. Another pillar of Latino cultural beliefs is familismo, which emphasizes the love, closeness, and mutual obligations of Latino family life (Halgunseth et al., 2006).

Does this mean that the typical parenting style in non-Western cultures is authoritarian? No, although scholars have sometimes come to this erroneous conclusion. It would be more accurate to state that the parenting-styles model is a cultural model, rooted in the American majority culture, and does not apply well to most other cultures. Of course, children everywhere need to have parents or other caregivers provide care for them in early childhood and beyond, and across cultures parents provide some combination of warmth and control. However, “responsiveness” is a distinctly American kind of warmth, emphasizing praise and physical affection, and “demandingness” is a distinctly American kind of control, emphasizing explanation and negotiation rather than the assertion of parental authority. Other cultures have their own culturally based forms of warmth and control, but across cultures, warmth rarely takes the American form of praise, and control rarely takes the American form of explanation and negotiation (Harkness et al., 2015; Matsumoto & Yoo, 2006; Miller, 2004; Wang & Tamis-LeMonda, 2003).

Even within American society, the authoritative style is mainly dominant among White, middle-class families (Bornstein & Bradley, 2014). Most American minority cultures, including African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos, have been classified by researchers as “authoritarian,” but this is inaccurate and results from applying to them a model that was based on the White majority culture (Chao & Tseng, 2002). Each minority culture has its own distinctive form of warmth, but all tend to emphasize obeying parental authority rather than encouraging explanation and negotiation. Hence the White, middle class, American model of parenting styles cannot really be applied to them.

Within cultures, parenting varies depending on the personalities of the parents, their goals for their children, and the characteristics of the children that evoke particular parenting responses. Overall, however, the dominant approach to parenting in a culture reflects certain things about underlying cultural beliefs, such as the value of interdependence versus independence and the status of parental authority over children (Giles-Sims & Lockhart, 2005; Harkness et al., 2015; Hulei et al., 2006). The cultural context of parenting is so crucial that what looks like the same parental behavior in two different cultures can have two very different effects, as we will see in the next section.

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    Human Development Personal Response Paper

    Assignment Instructions :

    In this personal response paper, you will explore how you were parented in terms of the four parenting styles discussed in your text on pages 253-256 (LO 6.16: Parenting Styles). If you find you need more sources for clarification, please contact me. Please DO NOT seek out or use any outside sources unless I give you permission to do so. More specifically, you will discuss the parenting style you received from your primary caregiver (the person who was most responsible for raising you) during your childhood and how receiving this parenting style may (or may not) have affected you. Human Development Personal Response Paper

    ONLY pick ONE person, even if you were raised by more than one.

    ONLY pick one style to discuss and examples of it, even if seemed to vary.

    To help you be successful, I have a very specific format I want you to follow for this paper. Here is what I want you to do:

    Paragraph 1The first paragraph should introduce what you will be talking about in the paper. (In this paragraph you should state who it is you will be talking about and their relationship to you. You should also state which parenting style was primarily used.)

    Paragraph 2 (or more)Give the definition of the style. [If you use your own words, you must be absolutely sure that all of them are your own AND you still must reference the material (1) in-text (meaning in the body of the paragraph) and (2) provide the full citation at the end of your paper in the reference section. When you use all your own words, you do NOT need to use quotation marks or provide a page number. If you have trouble using your own words and/or need to quote, (1) use quotation marks, (2) provide the reference in-text, (3) provide the full citation at the end in the reference section, and (4) provide a page number. By the way, changing the order of some words or substituting some words for others DOES NOT count as your own words and are considered plagiarism. In such a case, you should quote it and note it! If you need help with this, please ask.]

    After or in combination with defining the style (depending on how you organize it), you need to then describe how the parenting style that you received during your childhood or adolescence fits in with the definition of this particular style. Give examples of how this particular parenting style was used. (If your parent seemed to switch styles or use multiple styles, please pick only this one to discuss.) In terms of organization, the best way is often to have one paragraph defining the style by itself, then one or more paragraphs where aspects of the definition are exemplified. Human Development Personal Response Paper

    Be careful how you organize this part. Organize your paragraphs well. Be sure you show you understand the elements of this style well by how you discuss and give examples of it in action.

    Paragraph 3 (or more)Discuss specifically why you think this person primarily used this type of parenting style. This means you should pick one or more possible reasons and then describe how you know they played a role by using examples or demonstrating your thoughtfulness on the topic. (For example, you may consider culture, era parent was raised in or cohort, the way your parent was parented, etc.) If you have several potential reasons, you may do best to discuss each in its own paragraph.

    Paragraph 4 (or more): Briefly assess the effectiveness of this parenting style for you (not children in general). Discuss the impact of this parenting style on how you are today (as an adult or a late adolescent). Again, you should not talk about children in general here; talk about yourself. You may wish to consider how you will parent your future children or how you have parented the children you currently have. Look at the effects discussed in the text if you need ideas about what you might consider for outcomes (but you do not have to address these). If you do use material from the text here, be sure you cite it in APA style.

    Note: Do not use outside sources for this paper. This includes any other outside source (websites, other texts, articles). If you do not understand the parenting styles well from what you read in the text, please contact me. I am happy to help you! I can also approve an outside source if you feel you just have to cite one.

    General formatting instructions :

    1) Although this paper uses APA style for citing, you do not need to use APA style for formatting a research paper (as this isn’t a research paper). For example, you do not need a running head and other things that are NOT included below.

    2) Title Page: Create a title page. The title page will include an appropriate title, your name, date and a final word count.

    3) Formatting: The paper should be double-spaced in an easy-to-read 12-point font (like Times New Roman) with 1-inch margins on the sides and at the top and bottom. Do not use any bold text in the body of the paper. (If you wish to emphasize a word or phrase, use italics.) Do not add extra spacing between paragraphs. (Sometimes students do this to show they are starting a new paragraph, but the way you should do this is by indenting new paragraphs. As such, spacing should be uniform and entirely double-spaced.)

    4) Word Count: The paper should be a maximum of 2000 words (including title page and references). (Most students write about three and a half to four double-spaced pages. This would not include the title page or references section.) When you are typing a document in a Word program, you can check your word count by going to Tools on the menu bar and then clicking on “word count.” Please do not forget to tell me your word count on your title page. Going over the word count will result in a reduction of points. Having fewer words if fine so long as you cover the material very well.

    5) Style: Since this paper is a personal response, you will have to use the first person (“I”, “my family,” etc.).

    6) Late papers: Late papers will NOT normally be accepted. To avoid a problem the day the paper is due, you should submit it 24-hours early like usual.

    7) Citing: You must also properly use APA style referencingEveryone will have to reference the information you obtained from your textbook in your paper since you did not come up with these styles yourself. Please be sure you reference in-text (meaning in the body of the paragraphs) and at the end in a “References” section (which, by the way, is its own page at the end of the paper). If you get stuck, please ask! I would be happy to help you. If you do not do this, you will earn an F on the paper, perhaps an F in the course, and be reported from plagiarism (which may become part of your academic record). Please see more on academic dishonesty in your syllabus and in the Week 1 folder where you learned these expectations.

    Also, if you are using the digital version of the text, you will need to cite with the section LO (“Learning Objective” number for the little section show at start of each section) if you need a page number when quoting (because someone forgot about page numbers online…and, yes, I have complained). For example: (Arnett & Jensen, 2019, p. LO 5.1). You don’t need the page number of the LO number if you just summarize in your own words. Just ask me if you are confused. Human Development Personal Response Paper

    8) Grading: You will be graded on a few different dimensions:

    a. Thoughtfulness. To do well in this area, you must show that you spent time considering the topic and formulating your responses. Here I am looking for some creativity; did you put some thought into coming up with excellent examples or did you simply make something simple up to get the paper done?

    b. Appropriateness. To perform at your best in this dimension, your paper should address the assignment. In other words, did you do what the assignment asked you to do? You should remain on topic and discuss only what is relevant to the topic in your paper.

    c. Organization. To achieve high marks in this area, your paper must be easy to follow; it should “flow,” using transitions appropriately. You should use clearly defined paragraphs and complete sentences. Your paragraphs should follow the format I have outlined above. You should use APA referencing.

    d. Clarity. Your paper must be clearly expressed, grammatically correct, properly spelled, and readable. (In other words, I shouldn’t be sitting there trying figure out what you mean!)

    9) Turning it in: You will submit it by uploading it into Canvas via the plagiarism server Turn It In.