Erikson’s Stage of Development

Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

Tina is 5 years old, lives with her mother and grandmother. Mother works 2 jobs to help support her mother and her daughter. Tina is well cared for but is now admitted for a cardiac catheterization due to the Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) that was noted at birth.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

Tina has an extensive history of respiratory infections and a nursing diagnosis of ‘activity intolerance’. Her mother relates that she does not allow her to play organized or competitive games due to her health. Tina smiles broadly when you come in the room to begin the pre-operative checklist. She starts to ask you a question when her grandmother tells her she must stay in the bed. “The nurse knows what she is doing and you will just be in the way.” Tina continues to smile at you but moves back to the bed.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay


You have identified some unique family dynamics, please relate.

What is the Erikson developmental level that Tina should exhibit? And where do you think she is?

How can you assist in the developmental growth?

What education can you give to Tina and her grandmother pre operatively?

What will she expect post operatively?

This paper is to be 500 words APA style with references. 20 points.

Group B Discussion Rubric Module 7
Show Descriptions Show Feedback
Erikson’s Stage of Development–
Levels of Achievement:
Unsatisfactory 0 (0.00%) points
Answers ONE or LESS of the following questions adequately: 1. What stage of development is this child in? 2. What are the potential adverse outcomes for a child who doesn’t solve the crisis in this stage of development? 3. What stage do you think Tina is in and why?
Needs Improvement 3.9 (19.50%) points
Answers TWO of the following questions adequately: 1. What stage of development is this child in? 2. What are the potential adverse outcomes for a child who doesn’t solve the crisis in this stage of development? 3. What stage do you think Tina is in and why?Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay
Satisfactory 5 (25.00%) points
Answers all of the following questions adequately: 1. What stage of development is this child in? 2. What are the potential adverse outcomes for a child who doesn’t solve the crisis in this stage of development? 3. What stage do you think Tina is in and why?
Levels of Achievement:
Unsatisfactory 0 (0.00%) points
Describes ONE nursing considerations with rationales keeping in mind client centered care regarding helping the family assist Tina with her developmental growth.
Needs Improvement 3.9 (19.50%) points
Describes TWO nursing considerations with rationales keeping in mind client centered care regarding helping the family assist Tina with her developmental growth.
Satisfactory 5 (25.00%) points
Describes THREE nursing considerations with rationales keeping in mind client centered care regarding helping the family assist Tina with her developmental growth.
Pre/op and Post/op–
Levels of Achievement:
Unsatisfactory 0 (0.00%) points
Describes TWO or fewer teaching points the nurse should direct towards Tina and/or Tina’s family about pre AND post op care (focus on pediatric care and Tina’s developmental level).
Needs Improvement 3.9 (19.50%) points
Describes THREE teaching points the nurse should direct towards Tina and/or Tina’s family about pre AND post op care (focus on pediatric care and Tina’s developmental level).
Satisfactory 5 (25.00%) points
Describes FOUR teaching points the nurse should direct towards Tina and/or Tina’s family about pre AND post op care (focus on pediatric care and Tina’s developmental level).
Nursing Diagnosis and SMART Goal–
Levels of Achievement:Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay
Unsatisfactory 0 (0.00%) points
Based on the information in the Discussion the student DOES NOT correctly identifies a nursing diagnosis (and all required parts) AND DOES NOT identify ONE goal written in SMART format AND the nursing diagnosis and/or goal do not correlate to the information in the Discussion.
Needs Improvement 2.34 (11.70%) points
Based on the information in the Discussion the student correctly identifies ONE nursing diagnosis (and all required parts) OR identifies ONE goal written in SMART format OR the nursing diagnosis and/or goal do not correlate to the information in the Discussion.
Satisfactory 3 (15.00%) points
Based on the information in the Discussion the student correctly identifies ONE nursing diagnosis (and all required parts) AND identifies ONE goal written in SMART format.
Grammar, Spelling, and Length–
Levels of Achievement:
Unsatisfactory 0 (0.00%) points
There are many grammar and spelling errors that make it very difficult to understand the message. The paper is LESS THAN 250 words
Needs Improvement 0.78 (3.90%) points
There are minor grammar and spelling errors that partially detract the reader from the message. The paper is AT LEAST 250 words OR is more than 499 words.
Satisfactory 1 (5.00%) points
There are minor grammar and spelling errors that do not detract the reader from the message. The paper is At LEAST 500 words and less than 600 words.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay
Levels of Achievement:
Unsatisfactory 0 (0.00%) points
Student DOES NOT list references in text OR in the reference page.
Needs Improvement 0.78 (3.90%) points
Student lists references in text OR in the reference page but not both.
Satisfactory 1 (5.00%) points
Student lists all references in text and in the reference page.
Name:Group B Discussion Rubric Module 7

In Erik Erikson’s theory he explains that in every stage, a positive or a negative attitude is developed within an individual. During our developing stages we are either successful or we fail. Each stage will come to us whether or not we’re ready for them or not. You can think of the stages as learning stages where crisis occur .Only if we have learned from the previous crisis we are successful. You cannot avoid 1 stage and move to a next stage because of the developing process. The outcome of our lives depends on the way we chose to progress throughout each stage in life. Erikson had his own way in describing each stage in life that we all must go through. Erik Erikson’s eight Stages of man; politically known as the eight stages of…show more content…Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay
Because the theories focus on development, there is no way to avoid these stages, they are a part of our natural development. Every crisis tests our ego. If you want to be prepared for the next crisis a solution must be found for the previous crisis .This is known as the favorable ratio, which is developing more adaptive than maladaptive behaviors. Each crisis is named after the adaptive vs. maladaptive way of dealing with the problem. From the beginning of time up until 18 months a sense of security has to be gained. As an infant trust has to be gained. Infants have to be able to trust their guardians when unseen without going through intense uneasiness or animosity. Many parents don’t realize just how much nurturing and caring for your child is important. Trust in the world has to be gained by the child; they need to know that everything will be taken care of. Mistrust is born if the child is led to believe that his/her guardian can’t meet their basic needs. Tender, love, and care is very critical. Favorable ratio has to be developed as previously stated, simply meaning that the majority of the behavior developed is adaptive and only a few should be maladaptive behaviors. You would want them to gain some kind of mistrust. For example, you wouldn’t want them to just talk to anyone and let that person talk them in to taking them away. During stage 2, around the ages of 1-3 years of age, we develop the ability to rely on our self. Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

According to Eric Erikson, once a person matures it has to go through eight different social stages. Each stage has a positive side and a negative side. If they meet positive characteristics, their future is good. Therefore, to what extent will the lack of strengthening of the favorable characteristics of Ericsson ‘s psychosocial development stage affect you. The effect is terrible. In particular, the only property that is satisfied at all stages is the downside.

The theory of psychosocial development of Erik Erikson emphasizes developmental socio-cultural determinants and presents them as 8 levels of psychosocial conflicts (often referred to as psychosocial development stages of Erikson), and no one Must overcome or successfully resolve these steps. Adapting to the environment According to Erik Erikson’s theory, we all encountered a crisis that contributes to psychosocial growth at every stage of Erikson’s psychosocial development. Whenever we encounter such a crisis we have no choice but to confront it and find a way to solve it. Failure to overcome this crisis may have a major impact on our psychosocial development Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

Developmental theory is a psychological phase of life. Erik Erikson is known for his psychosocial development stage and the creation of the term “identity crisis”. Ericsson’s theory of psychosocial development is one of the most famous personalities theory. Like Freud, Ericsson believes that personality develops in a series of eight stages. Unlike Freud’s psychosocial phase theory, Ericsson’s theory represents the impact of social experience throughout the lifecycle. Erik Erikson’s eight stages of development

The development of personality is mainly studied by the theory of psychosocial development of Ericsson. Ericsson’s theory includes eight levels of psychosocial development and these theories are arranged in the following order: Phase 1 – trust and disbelief phase 2 – Autonomy and shame and suspicion Phase 3 – Initiative and Guilt Stage 4 – Industry and Disadvantage 5 – Identity and Chaos (Adolescence: 12 – 20 Years) Stage 6 – Intimacy and Isolation Stage 7 – Stage of Generation and War Stage 8 – Stage of Integrity and Despair 5th of the Ericsson Theory The stage reflects adolescence. In the meantime, Erikson insists that individuals ask questions and explore their identity and their role in society. In addition, those who did not overcome the identity crisis did not form a stable identity, became enthusiastic about delayed behaviors and actions, said that it is difficult to form and maintain a close relationship in life.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

Erik H. Erikson (1902 – 1994) is without a doubt one of the most outstanding psychoanalysts of the last century. The native Dane and later US-American further developed the psychosocial aspects and the developmental phases of adulthood in Sigmund Freud’s stage theory.

It is Erikson’s basic assumption that in the course of a lifetime, the human being goes through eight developmental phases, which are laid out in an internal development plan.

On each level, it is required to solve the relevant crisis, embodied by the integration of opposite poles presenting the development tasks, the successful handling of which is in turn of importance for the following phases.

The term crisis does not have a negative connotation for Erikson, but rather is seen as a state, which through constructive resolution leads to further development, which is being integrated and internalized into the own self-image.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

“Each (component) comes to its ascendance, meets its crisis, and finds its lasting solution (…) toward the end of the stages mentioned. All of them exist in the beginning in some form.”[1]


Hence, the human development is a process alternating between levels, crises, and the new balance in order to reach increasingly mature stages.

In detail, Erikson studied the possibilities of an individual’s advancement and the affective powers that allow it to act. This becomes particularly obvious in the eight psychosocial phases, which now should be the focus of this paper. This demonstrates that Erikson did see development as above all: a lifelong process.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

2. Stages of Psychosocial Development
2.1 Basic trust vs. basic mistrust
In this phase of life, the state of the child is characterized by the trauma of birth. All of a sudden, the child is ripped out of the familiar environment and the bond with the mother is redefined.

The sense of basic trust, defined as “an essential trustfulness”[2], develops during this first phase of life, the first year of life, during the so-called oral stage[3] (Freud), and is, so Erikson, “the cornerstone of a vital personality”[4].

The child learns the simplest and the earliest modality: to “get”, not in its negative sense of unsolicited or forcible taking, but in that of accepting what is given[5].

The social reference person is the mother, who through offering the breast not only meets the child’s elementary basic needs, like eating, but hereby also provides oral satisfaction. She takes on the role of provider the child can rely on.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

The trust is not just depleted in the person of the mother, but according to Erikson it also refers to the infant himself. “By ″trust″ I mean an essential trustfulness of others as well as a fundamental sense of one’s own trustworthiness”[6].

“This forms the very basis in the child for a component of the sense of identity which will later combine a sense of being “alright”, of being oneself …”[7]

This basic trust in oneself and others forms the basis for any later development and consequently is not a stage that has to be overcome, but is something that will always remain and resonate subliminally.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

In the second half of the first year of life, according to Erikson, a first crisis does occur.

This crisis appears to consist of the coincidence in time of three developments:

On one part of the physiological, namely that the infant experiences the growing need to absorb, appropriate, and observe things, on the other part of a psychological development, namely the growing realization of being an individual. The third development is dependent on the environment, as evidently the mother seems to turn away from the child and to focus on other activities.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

The child can possibly interpret this turning away as a withdrawal of motherly love.

If a child does not overcome this conflict, and the negative experiences dominate, so according to Erikson, this leads to “(…) acute infantile depression (Spitz, 1945) or to a mild but chronic state of mourning which may give a depressive undertone to the remainder of one’s life.”[8]

Instead of basic trust, the infant develops basic mistrust.

For this reason, it is important to uphold and strengthen a child’s basic trust during this stage, which is connected with increasingly frequent impressions of deceit, separation, and of being abandoned.

The basic attitude that is generated during this first stage of life has an impact on a person’s entire life.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

If basic trust was built, there is a predominantly optimistic attitude towards other people. If this basic trust is lacking, there is the risk of developing a general basic mistrust, not just towards the world, but also towards oneself. A severely damaged basic trust, or one that is not formed in the first place, can lead to psychic disorders like depression.

The positive experiences, such as feelings of security, warmth, dependability, attentiveness, and devotion should outweigh negative experiences and frustration, such as having to wait for the satisfaction of needs, disappointment, solitude, disregard, or physical pain.

Naturally, frustration cannot be avoided completely in childhood.

According to Erikson it is important, however, that not only positive experiences predominate in order to develop a sense of trust, but that the sum of trust that a child takes away from these early experiences does not absolutely depend on the quantity, but rather the quality of the mother-child-relationship. “Mothers create a sense of trust in their children by that kind of administration which in its quality combines sensitive care of the baby’s individual needs and a firm sense of trustworthiness (…).”[9]Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

Hence, success is rather dependent on the fulfillment of motherly functions within the respective cultural environment and set of values, like knowledge, religion, etc., and not on the quantity of produced motherly love.

So this is the beginning – the coming together of an infant, a pair of parents, and a society, in an act of faith and trust.

2.2 Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
In this second stage, which is the second and third year of life, autonomy is developed with healthy personalities, due to the increasing physical abilities, especially the development of the muscle system. The child is offered two modalities: holding on and letting go.[10] “A general ability, indeed, a violent need, develops to alternate withholding and expelling at will and, in general, to keep tightly and to throw away willfully whatever is held.”[11]

The newly acquired ability puts the child in the position to distance himself from the reference person, to set himself apart and to have his will in order to be in a certain way less dependent on the care environment. Moreover, he is able to control bowel and bladder movement on his own.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

A particular, however not exclusive role is hereby given to the excretory organs; not without a reason, psychoanalysis has termed this stage the anal phase (Freud).

The ability to control the bodily excretory function means wellbeing for the child, so Erikson. Moreover, control means, at least in Western cultures, praise from the part of reference persons, which “at first must make up for quite frequent discomfort and tension suffered as the bowels learn to do their daily work.”[12]

Again, the development of physiological functions goes hand in hand with with the maturation of personal abilities. For the child, controlling the bowel movement is a significant step towards autonomy. By not having to be changed anymore, the child gets more independent from the parents. This strengthens self-confidence, which is supported by acknowledgement given by the parents at the same time.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

Erikson calls this entire life stage a “battle for autonomy”[13]. The child begins to compartmentalize his world in “I”, “you” and “my”[14]. Erikson includes the seemingly contradictory tendencies, like snuggling and pushing away, picking up and dropping, being obedient and being rebellious under the formula of “retentive-eliminative modes”[15].

The special emphasis that in this phase is put on autonomy, however, also makes clear what the child is not able to do yet.

Shame and doubt come up, when aspired goals cannot reached yet and the child has the feeling of being made fun of; this can happen, when for example the process of toilet training is done too strictly or too early. This feeling is being reinforced, when parents prove to be unreliable. In this stage, a balance has to be found between autonomy and dependency.

“In this stage, be firm and yet tolerant towards the child, and he will become firm and tolerant towards himself. He will be proud to be an autonomous person; he will also grant others autonomy; and every now and then he will let something slip for himself.”[16]Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

For the growth of the found autonomy, the child has to be protected from excessive failures that can cause him to feel shame over the own shortcomings, or even to doubt his own competency. Erikson describes shame as “(…) essentially rage turned against the self.”[17] and doubt as “the brother of shame”[18].

Therefore it is particularly important, that parenting offers sufficient support for the child and his now awakening thirst for action. The child’s needs have to be recognized and taken seriously. Through the approval of his actions and the reaction of reference persons, the child experiences self-confidence and is being reassured and satisfied in his curiosity, his thirst for knowledge and investigation and is thus learning to know and to recognize what he wants. The child develops self-confidence.

The child needs to be encouraged in his actions und should constantly be aware, that the basic trust he gained in the first stage keeps existing.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

“The infant must have come to feel that the basic faith in existence, which is the lasting treasure saved from the rages of the oral stage, will not be jeopardized by the violent wish to have his choice, to appropriate demandingly, and to eliminate stubbornly.”[19]

This only will allow him to express his will without having to fear, that the parents would disapprove and shame him for his actions. A balance has to be found between autonomy and dependence.

However, is the child denied this autonomy by parental authorities, this can in turn lead to fundamental incursions in development and consequently to disorders like compulsive behavior and self-doubt. Individuals who do not develop a sense of autonomy, always harbor doubts and fear criticism.

“For if denied the gradual and well-guided experience of the autonomy of free choice (or if, indeed, weakened by an initial loss of trust) the child will turn against himself all his urge to discriminate and to manipulate. He will over-manipulate himself, he will develop a precocious conscience. Instead of taking possession of things in order to test them by purposeful repetition, he will become obsessed by his own repetitiveness; (…)”[20]Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

The internalized results of this phase are reflected in the relationship of the individual with the principles of law and order.

2.3 Initiative vs. guilt
The ability to show initiative is at the center of this stage, the fourth and fifth year of life, which corresponds to the oedipal or phallic stage (Freud). In the mastered second stage, the child did learn that he is an individual, convinced to be an independent person. According to Erikson, the child now has to “(…) find out, what kind of a person he may become.”[21]

For the first time, he recognizes differences and similarities between himself and other people. Gender differenciation also happens for the first time. The child shifts his focus from himself to the environment and thus begins to explore reality. The child develops scientific curiosity and the motivation to do something, to act, and to approach something.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

At this point it appears hardly surprising, that this stage, once more, is characterized by physical abilities. According to Erikson, in this stage the child is helped with three developmental spurts, that however, activate the next crisis: for the first part, the child learns to move around more freely and more violently and therefore establishes a new radius of goals, for the other part his sense of language becomes perfected to the point where he can understand more, can ask questions but also can misunderstand. Both language and locomotion permit him to expand his imagination.[22]Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

The child then dreams up worlds he cannot avoid frightening himself with.

“Nevertheless, out of all this he must emerge with a sense of initiative as a basis for a realistic sense of ambition and purpose.”[23]

A resolution of the problem presents itself, when ” (…) the child seems to ″grow together″ both in his person and in his body (…) he is in free possession of a surplus of energy which permits him to forget failures quickly and to approach what seems to be desirable (…) with undimimished and more accurate direction.”[24]

The child begins to measure and compare himself with the grownups; he wants to intrude into the adult world, as in general he has an intrusive desire.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

The “intrusive mode”[25] dominating much of the behavior of this stage, characterizes a variety of similar activities and fantasies, such as the intrusion into space by vigorous locomotion, the intrusion into other peoples’s ears and minds by the aggressive voice, or the intrusion into the unknown by consuming curiosity.

For the reason that the child is trying to understand himself and his world, the interest in his own, yet infantile sexuality is growing[26]. In this area, the child experiences obvious boundaries, due to the lacking physical development; in this context, Erikson mentions the Freudian “Oedipus complex”[27].

With boys, this stage is characterized as phallic and suggests pleasure in attack and conquest. In contrast, in girls this turns to modes of receiving. Their approach is either a more aggressive form of snatching by jealous conquest or the milder form of making oneself “attractive and endearing”[28].Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

The child basically tries to assume the role of the same-sex parent, while the opposite-sex parent is the target of the seductive behavior. Due to the focus on the environment, the child does not feel rivalry towards younger siblings, but instead towards those who were there first. The child enters the contest for favored position with one of the parents in order to feel resignation, guilt and anxiety with the inevitable failure.

Bound for failure, he is indulging in reenactments and fantasies, because he is not able to defeat the adult and not “mighty” enough to assume their functions.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

“This, then, is the stage of fear for life and limb, of the intensified fear of losing, or on the part oft he girl the conviction that she has lost, the male genital as punishment for secret fantasies and deeds.”[29] It is necessary to overcome the castration complex of this stage to get to the realization that the child himself is part of the gender succession.

At the same time, so Erikson, conscience develops during this stage, which he calls “governor of initiative”[30]. Now the child knows already during the act, if he is acting right or wrong and measures himself and the parents by their deeds. The child begins now not only to be ashamed for what he has done, when it is discovered, but he begins to fear the discovery per se and to feel guilty for merely the thought and the actions. Erikson calls this the cornerstone of morality in the individual sense.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

The successful handling of the crisis at this stage leads to the child arising from it with an unbroken initiative. If the conflict is not appropriately addressed, it leads to an overzealous conscience, which is also going to hamper and restrict initiative in later stages of life, or to overcompensate. At this stage, a balance has to be found between a healthy dose of initiative and a normal regulation authority.

“The indispensable contribution of the initiative stage to later identity development, then, obviously is that of freeing the child’s initiative and sense of purpose for adult tasks which promise (but cannot guarantee) a fulfillment of one’s range of capacities.”[31]

The result consists of guilt and a feeling to be in charge of the own initiatives.Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay


2.4 Industry vs. inferiority
In this stage, from the sixth year of life up to puberty, there is no new source of inner support and consequently it is also called latency period or stage (Freud)[32], because violent drives of sexual development are temporarily dormant.

Erikson describes this stage also as “(…) a lull before the storm of puberty (…)”.[33]

If a conviction can summarize the first stage with “I am what hope I have and give”, in the second stage with “I am what I can freely”, in the third stage with “I am what I can imagine I will”, so it is in the fourth stage, that “I am what I can learn to make work”[34] gains priority.

The child is more open to the world and has a growing need to be productive, to learn something new, to contribute to the world of adults, and tob e recognized by it. Erikson calls this desire a “sense of industry”[35].Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay

Erikson does not deny the significance of the play during this stage; he talks about preparing for the future, or a method to vent past agitation, vindicate past failures in his fantasy[36], but also of “a safe place the child creates to return to, if need be to ″overhaul″ his ego.”[37] But he emphasizes at the same time the tendencies of children in this age group, according to their growing abilities to watch, to join, to observe, and to participate. This can happen at school, in the street, at a friend’s house, or at home. In this respect, the play assumes a quite important function: Contrary to an adult’s play, which serves relaxation purposes, it allows the child a new level of coping with reality[38], “(…) an infantile way of mastering social experience by experimenting, planning, and sharing, alone and with playmates.”[39]

Hence, for the child as opposed to the adult, play is not a means to flee reality, but rather a mechanism to cope with reality, which is increasingly important to the child. The play alone, however, is according to Erikson not enough for the development. The child wants to be useful and accomplish something, he develops pleasure in knowledge, determination, precision, perfection, and endurance, and he wants to create something. Erikson’s Stage of Development Essay