Discussion Board Case Study Paper

Discussion Board Case Study Paper

Discussion Board Case Study Paper

  1. Consider the following scenario:

Marque and Eva are the parents of 6-month-old Oliver. They recently read an article suggesting that chubby babies are at risk of becoming overweight children and adults. Friends and family often observe that Oliver is “chubby,” and now Marque and Eva are considering putting him on a diet. Discussion Board Case Study Paper


Using research from the text to support their answer, ask students to explain to Marque and Eva why putting Oliver on a diet would be a bad idea. Students should consider these questions:

  • Why is good nutrition crucial for development in the first two years?
  • Are chubby babies at risk for later overweight and obesity?
  • What can Marque and Eva do to prevent Oliver from becoming an overweight child?
  • attachment


    Exploring Lifespan Development

    F O U R T H E D I T I O N

    Laura E. Berk Illinois State University



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    Copyright © 2018 by Laura E. Berk. Copyrights © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.

    All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 221 River Street, Hoboken NJ 07030.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Berk, Laura E., author. Title: Exploring lifespan development / Laura E. Berk, Illinois State University. Description: Fourth Edition. | Boston : Pearson, [2018] | Revised edition of the author’s Exploring lifespan development, 2014. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017013903| ISBN 9780134419701 | ISBN 0134419707 | ISBN 9780134420714 | ISBN 0134420675 | ISBN 9780134420677 Subjects: LCSH: Developmental psychology–Textbooks. Classification: LCC BF713 .B466 2017 | DDC 155–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017013903

    Dedication To David, Peter, and Melissa, with love

    Student Edition ISBN 10: 0-13-441970-7 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-441970-1

    Instructor’s Review Edition ISBN 10: 0-13-442071-3 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-442071-4

    À la Carte Edition ISBN 10: 0-13-442067-5 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-442067-7



    Laura E. Berk is a distinguished professor of psychol- ogy at Illinois State University, where she has taught child, adolescent, and lifespan development for more than three decades. She received her bachelor’s degree in psychology from the University of California, Berkeley, and her mas- ter’s and doctoral degrees in child development and educa-

    tional psychology from the University of Chicago. She has been a visiting scholar at Cornell University, UCLA, Stanford University, and the University of South Australia.

    Berk has published widely on the effects of school environments on children’s devel- opment, the development of private speech, and the role of make-believe play in develop- ment. Her empirical studies have attracted the attention of the general public, leading to contributions to Psychology Today and Scientific American. She has also been featured on National Public Radio’s Morning Edition and in Parents Magazine, Wondertime, and Reader’s Digest.

    Berk has served as a research editor of Young Children, a consulting editor for Early Childhood Research Quarterly, and as an associate editor of the Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology. She is a frequent contributor to edited volumes, having written the article on social development for The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion and the article on Vygotsky for The Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. She is coauthor of the chap- ter on make-believe play and self-regulation in the Sage Handbook of Play in Early Child- hood and the chapter on psychologists writing textbooks in Career Paths in Psychology: Where Your Degree Can Take You, published by the American Psychological Association. Discussion Board Case Study Paper

    Berk’s books include Private Speech: From Social Interaction to Self-Regulation; Scaffolding Children’s Learning: Vygotsky and Early Childhood Education; Landscapes of Development: An Anthology of Readings; and A Mandate for Playful Learning in Pre- school: Presenting the Evidence. In addition to Exploring Lifespan Development, she is author of the best-selling texts Development Through the Lifespan, Child Development, and Infants, Children, and Adolescents, published by Pearson. Her book for parents and teachers is Awakening Children’s Minds: How Parents and Teachers Can Make a Difference.

    Berk is active in work for children’s causes. She serves on the governing boards of the Illinois Network of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies and of Artolution, an organization devoted to engaging children, youths, and families in collaborative public art projects around the world as a means of promoting resilience and relief from trauma. Berk has been designated a YWCA Woman of Distinction for service in education. She is a fel- low of the American Psychological Association, Division 7: Developmental Psychology. Discussion Board Case Study Paper

    About the Author




    S O C I A L I S S U E S : H E A LT H

    The Pros and Cons of Reproductive Technologies 42 The Nurse–Family Partnership: Reducing Maternal Stress and

    Enhancing Child Development Through Social Support 73 A Cross-National Perspective on Health Care and Other Policies for

    Parents and Newborn Babies 82 Does Child Care in Infancy Threaten Attachment Security and Later

    Adjustment? 161 Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: Coming Out to Oneself and

    Others 310 Childhood Attachment Patterns and Adult Romantic

    Relationships 390 Partner Abuse 397 The Silver Lining in Life’s Adversities 425 Grandparents Rearing Grandchildren: The Skipped-Generation

    Family 447 Interventions for Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia 477 Elder Suicide 497

    S O C I A L I S S U E S : E D U C AT I O N

    Baby Learning from TV and Video: The Video Deficit Effect 126 Magnet Schools: Equal Access to High-Quality Education 262 Media Multitasking Disrupts Learning 323 How Important Is Academic Engagement in College for Successful

    Transition to the Labor Market? 374

    B I O L O G Y A N D E N V I R O N M E N T

    Resilience 8 The Tutsi Genocide and Epigenetic Transmission of Maternal Stress

    to Children 57 The Mysterious Tragedy of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 85 “Tuning In” to Familiar Speech, Faces, and Music: A Sensitive Period

    for Culture-Specific Learning 111 Infantile Amnesia 130 Parental Depression and Child Development 149 Development of Shyness and Sociability 153 Autism and Theory of Mind 193 Transgender Children 224 Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 246 Bullies and Their Victims 280 Two Routes to Adolescent Delinquency 349 Telomere Length: A Marker of the Impact of Life Circumstances on

    Biological Aging 357 Anti-Aging Effects of Dietary Calorie Restriction 416 What Factors Promote Psychological Well-Being in Midlife? 441 What Can We Learn About Aging from Centenarians? 462 Experience Corps: Promoting Retired Adults’ Physical and Mental

    Health and Children’s Academic Success 514 Music as Palliative Care for Dying Patients 530

    C U LT U R A L I N F L U E N C E S

    The Baby Boomers Reshape the Life Course 10 Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land 26 Cultural Variation in Infant Sleeping Arrangements 99 Social Origins of Make-Believe Play 134 Why Are Children from Asian Cultures Advanced in Drawing

    Skills? 179 Children in Village and Tribal Cultures Observe and Participate in

    Adult Work 188 Ethnic Differences in the Consequences of Physical Punishment 215 The Flynn Effect: Massive Generational Gains in IQ 254 Impact of Ethnic and Political Violence on Children 289 Identity Development Among Ethnic Minority Adolescents 333 Is Emerging Adulthood Really a Distinct Stage of Development? 385 Cultural Variations in Mourning Behavior 539

    A P P LY I N G W H AT W E K N OW

    Do’s and Don’ts for a Healthy Pregnancy 74 Reasons to Breastfeed 101 Signs of Developmentally Appropriate Infant and Toddler Child

    Care 137 Helping Toddlers Develop Compliance and Self-Control 165 Signs of Developmentally Appropriate Early Childhood

    Programs 198 Positive Parenting 217 Signs of High-Quality Education in Elementary School 259 Helping Children Adjust to Their Parents’ Divorce 286 Handling Consequences of Teenagers’ New Cognitive

    Capacities 319 Supporting Healthy Identity Development 334 Preventing Sexual Coercion 369 Resources That Foster Resilience in Emerging Adulthood 384 Strategies That Help Dual-Earner Couples Combine Work and Family

    Roles 407 Managing Stress 422 Relieving the Stress of Caring for an Aging Parent 450 Increasing the Effectiveness of Educational Experiences for Older

    Adults 486 Fostering Adaptation to Widowhood in Late Adulthood 507 Suggestions for Resolving Grief After a Loved One Dies 538

    Features at a Glance



    Contents A Personal Note to Students xiii

    Preface for Instructors xiv

    P A R T I


    c h a p t e r 1 History, Theory, and Research Strategies 1

    A Scientific, Applied, and Interdisciplinary Field 3

    Basic Issues 3 Continuous or Discontinuous Development? 4 One Course of Development or Many? 4 Relative Influence of Nature and Nurture? 5

    The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View 5 Development Is Lifelong 5 Development Is Multidimensional and Multidirectional 6 Development Is Plastic 6 Development Is Influenced by Multiple, Interacting Forces 7


    Scientific Beginnings 9 Darwin: Forefather of Scientific Child Study 9

    ■ CULTURAL INFLUENCES The Baby Boomers Reshape the Life Course 10

    The Normative Period 11 The Mental Testing Movement 11

    Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories 11 The Psychoanalytic Perspective 11 Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory 13 Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory 14

    Recent Theoretical Perspectives 16 Information Processing 16 Developmental Neuroscience 17 Ethology and Evolutionary Developmental Psychology 17 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory 18 Ecological Systems Theory 19

    Comparing Theories 21

    Studying Development 21 Common Research Methods 21 General Research Designs 25

    ■ CULTURAL INFLUENCES Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land 26

    Designs for Studying Development 28

    Ethics in Lifespan Research 31

    Summary 32

    Important Terms and Concepts 34

    P A R T I I


    c h a p t e r 2 Genetic and Environmental Foundations 35

    Genetic Foundations 36 The Genetic Code 36 The Sex Cells 37 Boy or Girl? 37 Multiple Offspring 37 Patterns of Gene–Gene Interactions 38 Chromosomal Abnormalities 40

    Reproductive Choices 41 Genetic Counseling and Prenatal Diagnosis 41

    ■ SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH The Pros and Cons of Reproductive Technologies 42

    Adoption 44

    Environmental Contexts for Development 45 The Family 45 Socioeconomic Status and Family Functioning 47 Poverty 47 Affluence 48 Beyond the Family: Neighborhoods and Schools 48 The Cultural Context 50

    Understanding the Relationship Between Heredity and Environment 53

    The Question, “How Much?” 53 The Question, “How?” 54

    ■ BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT The Tutsi Genocide and Epigenetic Transmission of Maternal Stress to Children 57

    Summary 58 Important Terms and Concepts 59

    c h a p t e r 3 Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn Baby 60

    Prenatal Development 61 Conception 61 Germinal Period 62 Period of the Embryo 63 Period of the Fetus 64

    Prenatal Environmental Influences 66 Teratogens 66 Other Maternal Factors 71

    ■ SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH The Nurse–Family Partnership: Reducing Maternal Stress and Enhancing Child Development Through Social Support 73

    The Importance of Prenatal Health Care 73




    vi Contents

    Childbirth 75 The Stages of Childbirth 75 The Baby’s Adaptation to Labor and Delivery 76 Assessing the Newborn’s Physical Condition: The Apgar Scale 76

    Approaches to Childbirth 77 Natural, or Prepared, Childbirth 77 Home Delivery 77

    Medical Interventions 78 Fetal Monitoring 78 Labor and Delivery Medication 78 Cesarean Delivery 79

    Preterm and Low-Birth-Weight Infants 79 Preterm versus Small-for-Date Infants 79 Consequences for Caregiving 79 Interventions for Preterm Infants 80

    The Newborn Baby’s Capacities 81 Reflexes 81

    ■ SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH A Cross-National Perspective on Health Care and Other Policies for Parents and Newborn Babies 82

    States of Arousal 83

    ■ BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT The Mysterious Tragedy of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 85

    Sensory Capacities 86

    Adjusting to the New Family Unit 88

    Summary 89

    Important Terms and Concepts 90

    P A R T I I I


    c h a p t e r 4 Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood 91

    Body Growth 92 Changes in Body Size and Muscle–Fat Makeup 92 Changes in Body Proportions 92 Individual and Group Differences 92

    Brain Development 93 Development of Neurons 94 Measures of Brain Functioning 94 Development of the Cerebral Cortex 96 Sensitive Periods in Brain Development 97 Changing States of Arousal 98

    ■ CULTURAL INFLUENCES Cultural Variation in Infant Sleeping Arrangements 99

    Influences on Early Physical Growth 100 Heredity 100 Nutrition 100 Malnutrition 102

    Learning Capacities 103 Classical Conditioning 103 Operant Conditioning 103 Habituation 104 Imitation 104

    Motor Development 106 The Sequence of Motor Development 106 Motor Skills as Dynamic Systems 106 Fine-Motor Development: Reaching and Grasping 108

    Perceptual Development 109 Hearing 109 Vision 110

    ■ BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT “Tuning In” to Familiar Speech, Faces, and Music: A Sensitive Period for Culture-Specific Learning 111

    Intermodal Perception 114 Understanding Perceptual Development 115

    Summary 116

    Important Terms and Concepts 117

    c h a p t e r 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood 118

    Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory 119 Piaget’s Ideas About Cognitive Change 119 The Sensorimotor Stage 120 Follow-Up Research on Infant Cognitive Development 122 Evaluation of the Sensorimotor Stage 125

    ■ SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Baby Learning from TV and Video: The Video Deficit Effect 126

    Information Processing 127 A General Model of Information Processing 127 Attention 129 Memory 129 Categorization 130

    ■ BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Infantile Amnesia 130

    Evaluation of Information-Processing Findings 132

    The Social Context of Early Cognitive Development 132

    Individual Differences in Early Mental Development 133 Infant and Toddler Intelligence Tests 134

    ■ CULTURAL INFLUENCES Social Origins of Make-Believe Play 134

    Early Environment and Mental Development 135 Early Intervention for At-Risk Infants and Toddlers 138

    Language Development 139 Theories of Language Development 139 Getting Ready to Talk 140 First Words 141 The Two-Word Utterance Phase 141 Individual Differences 141 Supporting Early Language Development 142

    Summary 143

    Important Terms and Concepts 144