Discussion 3 Essay Paper

Discussion 3 Essay Paper

Discussion 3 Essay Paper

Question # 1: Person-Centered Chapter 7 (answer all parts of the question)

Think about Roger’s view of human nature and how it influences the practice of counseling.



  1. In your own words, explain the concept, “actualization tendency.”
  2. How does the actualization tendency influences the practice of Person-Centered Therapy?

Make sure to make reference to the text to support your points.

Question # 2: Behavioral Therapy Chapter 9 (answer all parts of the question)

Put yourself in the place of a client and think of a particular problem you might have that involves some form of fear or avoidance.

As the client, would you want your therapist to use in vivo (gradual) exposure OR flooding to treat the fear?

  1. Identify the fear
  2. Select a treatment (exposure or flooding)
  3. Explain the specific steps to applying the treatment
  4. Explain why you selected the particular method of treatment over the other option.

Grading Rubric for Discussion Posts- 8 Points

  • Did the student answer the question fully? (4.5 points)
  • Did the response make reference to the assigned reading? (0.5 points)
  • Did the response include the use of at least one outside resource to support points made in the discussion with reference listed? (2 points)
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    9Behavior Therapy

    1. Identify the key figures associated with the development of behavior therapy.

    2. Differentiate the four developmental areas of behavior therapy: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, social cognitive theory, and cognitive behavior therapy.

    3. Evaluate the central characteristics and assumptions that unite the diverse field of behavior therapy.

    4. Understand how the function and role of the therapist affects the therapy process.

    5. Describe the role of the client– therapist relationship in the behavioral approaches.

    6. Identify the diverse array of behavioral techniques and procedures and how they fit within the evidence-based practice movement.

    7. Describe the key concepts of EMDR, its main applications, and the effectiveness of this approach.

    8. Describe the basic elements of social skills training.

    9. Understand and explain the main steps involved in self-management programs.

    10. Identify the key concepts of the four major approaches of the mindfulness and acceptance- based behavior therapies.

    11. Examine the application of behavioral principles and techniques to brief interventions and to group counseling.

    12. Understand the advantages and shortcomings of behavior therapy in working with culturally diverse clients.

    13. Discuss the evaluation of contemporary behavior therapy.

    L e a r n i n g O b j e c t i v e s

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    232 C H A P T E R N I N E

    B. F. SKINNER (1904–1990) reported that he was brought up in a warm, stable family environment.* As he was grow- ing up, Skinner was greatly interested in building all sorts of things, an inter- est that followed him throughout his professional life. He received his PhD in psychology from Harvard University in 1931 and eventually returned to Harvard after teaching in several universities. He had two daughters, one of whom is an educational psychologist and the other an artist.

    Skinner was a prominent spokesperson for behaviorism and can be considered the father of the behavioral approach to psychology. Skinner cham- pioned radical behaviorism, which places primary emphasis on the effects of environment on behavior. Skinner was also a determinist; he did not believe that humans had free choice. He acknowledged that feel- ings and thoughts exist, but he denied that they caused our actions. Instead, he stressed the cause-and-effect links between objective, observable environmental conditions and behavior. Skinner maintained that too much attention had been given to internal states of mind and motives, which cannot be observed and changed directly, and that too little focus had been

    given to environmental factors that can be directly observed and changed. He was extremely interested in the concept of reinforcement, which he applied to his own life. For example, after working for many hours, he would go into his constructed cocoon (like a tent), put on headphones, and listen to classical music (Frank Dattilio, personal communica- tion, September 24, 2010).

    Most of Skinner’s work was of an experimental nature in the laboratory, but others have applied his ideas to teach-

    ing, managing human problems, and social plan- ning. Science and Human Behavior (Skinner, 1953) best illustrates how Skinner thought behavioral concepts could be applied to every domain of human behav- ior. In Walden II (1948) Skinner describes a utopian community in which his ideas, derived from the lab- oratory, are applied to social issues. His 1971 book, Beyond Freedom and Dignity, addressed the need for drastic changes if our society was to survive. Skinner believed that science and technology held the promise for a better future.

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    *This biography is based largely on Nye’s (2000) discussion of B. F. Skinner’s radical behaviorism.

    ALBERT BANDURA (b. 1925) was born in a small town in northern Alberta, Canada; he was the youngest of six chil- dren in a family of Eastern European descent.* Bandura spent his elemen- tary and high school years in the one school in town, which was short of teachers and resources. These meager educational resources proved to be an asset rather than a liability as Bandura early on learned the skills of self-direct- edness, which would later become one of his research themes. He earned his PhD in clinical psychology from the University of Iowa in 1952, and a year later he joined the faculty at Stanford University. Bandura and his colleagues did pioneering work in the area of social model- ing and demonstrated that modeling is a powerful process that explains diverse forms of learning (see

    Bandura 1971a, 1971b; Bandura & Wal- ters, 1963). In his research programs at Stanford University, Bandura and his colleagues explored social learning the- ory and the prominent role of observa- tional learning and social modeling in human motivation, thought, and action. By the mid-1980s Bandura had renamed his theoretical approach social cogni- tive theory, which shed light on how we function as self-organizing, proactive, self-reflective, and self-regulating beings (see Bandura, 1986). This notion that we

    are not simply reactive organisms shaped by environ- mental forces or driven by inner impulses represented a dramatic shift in the development of behavior ther- apy. Bandura broadened the scope of behavior ther- apy by exploring the inner cognitive-affective forces that motivate human behavior.

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    7Person-Centered Therapy

    1. Examine the evolution of person- centered therapy over time.

    2. Describe the main thrust of emotion-focused therapy.

    3. Differentiate the contributions of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow to humanistic psychology.

    4. Understand the role of the therapist’s attitudes in the therapy process.

    5. Describe the ways that empathy, unconditional positive regard, and genuineness are fundamental to the process and outcome of therapy.

    6. Identify the personal characteristics of therapists that are essential for clients’ progress.

    7. Examine the application of the person-centered approach to crisis intervention.

    8. Understand the unique characteristics of person-centered expressive arts and how it is based on person-centered philosophy.

    9. Examine the key concepts and principles of motivational interviewing and the stages of change.

    10. Recognize the contributions and shortcomings of the person-centered approach to understanding and working with clients from diverse cultures.

    11. Identify the contributions and limitations of the person-centered approach.

    L e a r n i n g O b j e c t i v e s

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    CARL ROGERS (1902–1987), a major spokesperson for humanistic psychol- ogy, led a life that reflected the ideas he developed for half a century. He showed a questioning stance, a deep openness to change, and the courage to forge into unknown territory both as a person and as a professional. In writing about his early years, Rogers (1961) recalled his fam- ily atmosphere as characterized by close and warm relationships but also by strict religious standards. Play was discouraged, and the virtues of the Protestant ethic were extolled. His boyhood was somewhat lonely, and he pursued scholarly interests instead of social ones. Rogers was an introverted person, and he spent a lot of time reading and engaging in imaginative activity and reflection. During his college years his interests and academic major changed from agriculture to history, then to religion, and finally to clinical psychology. Discussion 3 Essay Paper

    Rogers held academic positions in various fields, including education, social work, counseling, psycho- therapy, group therapy, peace, and interpersonal rela- tions, and he earned recognition around the world for originating and developing the humanistic movement in psychotherapy. His foundational ideas, especially the central role of the client–therapist relationship as a means to growth and change, have been incorporated in many other theoretical approaches. Rogers’s ideas continue to have far-reaching effects on the field of psy- chotherapy (Cain, 2010).

    It is difficult to overestimate the significance of Rogers’s contributions to clinical and counseling

    psychology. He was a courageous pioneer who “was about 50 years ahead of his time and has been waiting for us to catch up” (Elkins, 2009, p. 20). Often called the “father of psychotherapy research,” Rogers was the first to study the counseling pro- cess in depth by analyzing the transcripts of actual therapy sessions, and he was the first clinician to conduct major stud- ies on psychotherapy using quantitative methods. He was the first to formulate a comprehensive theory of personality and psychotherapy grounded in empirical

    research, and he contributed to developing a theory of psychotherapy that focused on the strengths and resources of individuals. He was not afraid to take a strong position and challenged the status quo throughout his professional career.

    During the last 15 years of his life, Rogers applied the person-centered approach to world peace by train- ing policymakers, leaders, and groups in conflict. Perhaps his greatest passion was directed toward the reduction of interracial tensions and the effort to achieve world peace, for which he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize.

    For a detailed video presentation of the life and works of Carl Rogers, see Carl Rogers: A Daughter’s Tribute (N. Rogers, 2002), which is described at the end of this chapter. For an in-depth look at this remarkable man and his work, see Carl Rogers: The Quiet Revolutionary (Rogers & Russell, 2002) and The Life and Work of Carl Rogers (Kirschenbaum, 2009).

    NATALIE ROGERS (b. 1928) is a pioneer in the field of person-centered expres- sive arts therapy. She expanded on her father’s (Carl Rogers) theory of cre- ativity by using the expressive arts to enhance personal growth for individuals and groups. Person-centered expres- sive arts therapy employs a variety of forms—movement, painting, sculpting, music, writing, and improvisation—in a supportive setting to facilitate growth and healing. It extends person-centered

    theory by helping individuals access their feelings through creative expressions. N. Rogers has developed the concept of the creative connection®—a process whereby the client or group member is invited to access inner feelings through an uninterrupted sequence of movement, sound, visual art, and journal writing. As the client moves through this process, hidden or unconscious aspects of self are discovered, and these insights are shared with the therapist. Discussion 3 Essay Paper