Nursing Assignments Help

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CUL427 Week 5 Assignment 1 Training Cheat Sheet-Employees

CUL427 Week 5 Assignment 1 Training Cheat Sheet-Employees

CUL427 Week 5 Assignment 1 Training Cheat Sheet-Employees

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You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.

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FIN 402 WEEK 5 ASSIGNMENT: Learning Team Finalizing Stock Research

FIN 402 WEEK 5 Assignment: Learning Team Finalizing Stock Research

FIN 402 WEEK 5 Assignment: Learning Team Finalizing Stock Research

Prepare a 5-minute team presentation using the modality of your choice.

Include the following:

Intro:

  • Who are the team members?
  • What was your goal?

Analysis:

  • What was your stock picking strategy?
  • List your initial 5 stocks and why you picked each one of them?
  • At the Halfway point: What was your analysis? Did you change any? Why or Why not?
  • At the End: How much money did you make for each stock and in total?

Conclusion:

  • What should you have done differently?
  • What conclusion can you make?
  • References

Format your submission consistent with APA guidelines

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

V102617

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Learning Team Finalizing Stock Research

Prepare a 5-minute team presentation using the modality of your choice.

Include the following:

Intro:

  • Who are the team members?
  • What was your goal?

Analysis:

  • What was your stock picking strategy?
  • List your initial 5 stocks and why you picked each one of them?
  • At the Halfway point: What was your analysis? Did you change any? Why or Why not?
  • At the End: How much money did you make for each stock and in total?

Conclusion:

  • What should you have done differently?
  • What conclusion can you make?
  • References

Format your submission consistent with APA guidelines

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

V102617

FIN 402 WEEK 5 Learning Team Finalizing Stock Research

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MGT 434 WEEK 5 Assignment: Understanding Labour Practices

MGT 434 WEEK 5 Assignment: Understanding Labour Practices

MGT 434 WEEK 5 Assignment: Understanding Labour Practices

Understanding Labor Practices

Labor laws:

National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) (Wagner Act)

Norris-LaGuardia Act

Labor Management Relations Act (Taft-Hartley Act)

Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (Landrum-Griffin Act)

Select the applicable federal law(s) from the labor laws above and its respective provision(s) affecting each labor practice issue.

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Save and submit to the Assignments tab.

Unfair labor practices committed by employers include the following: Applicable Law & Provision Affected
Refusal to collectively bargain with the union representative
Discrimination against union members
Company decides to form its own union
Retaliation against employees who file a grievance with the union
Interference with union elections
Unduly influencing union members or representatives
“I’ll close this plant if the union comes in here!”
Prohibits organizing activity during lunch breaks
Unfair labor practices committed by unions include the following: Applicable Law & Provision Affected
Coercing employees to join unions
Pilfering union dues
Refraining from collective bargaining
Calling an illegal strike that will affect the health and safety of the nation
Blocking the entrance to employer’s facility
Incorrect financial disclosures
“We’ll see who gets hurt tonight if you don’t vote for the union!”
Bad-faith, illegal bargaining.

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MGT 434 WEEK 5 Understanding Labor Practices

Understanding Labor Practices

Labor laws:

National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) (Wagner Act)

Norris-LaGuardia Act

Labor Management Relations Act (Taft-Hartley Act)

Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (Landrum-Griffin Act)

Select the applicable federal law(s) from the labor laws above and its respective provision(s) affecting each labor practice issue.

Save and submit to the Assignments tab.

Unfair labor practices committed by employers include the following: Applicable Law & Provision Affected
Refusal to collectively bargain with the union representative
Discrimination against union members
Company decides to form its own union
Retaliation against employees who file a grievance with the union
Interference with union elections
Unduly influencing union members or representatives
“I’ll close this plant if the union comes in here!”
Prohibits organizing activity during lunch breaks
Unfair labor practices committed by unions include the following: Applicable Law & Provision Affected
Coercing employees to join unions
Pilfering union dues
Refraining from collective bargaining
Calling an illegal strike that will affect the health and safety of the nation
Blocking the entrance to employer’s facility
Incorrect financial disclosures
“We’ll see who gets hurt tonight if you don’t vote for the union!”
Bad-faith, illegal bargaining.

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MGT 434 WEEK 5 Understanding Labor Practices

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MN 504 Scientific and Analytic Approaches to Advanced Evidence-Based Practice

MN 504 Scientific and Analytic Approaches to Advanced Evidence-Based Practice

MN 504 Scientific and Analytic Approaches to Advanced Evidence-Based Practice

Unit 2 Assignment

Discover Evidence Based Data Used in Clinical Practice

Purpose:

This Assignment is helpful in developing the groundwork for understanding and integrating evidence-based practice in healthcare throughout the rest of the course. In this Assignment you will have the chance to see how the research you look for can be applied in the work you do in your practice.

Overview:

You will select a topic relevant to your practice area, post the topic to Discussion Board 2 for feedback, research the topic, and write a scholarly paper.

From the chapter readings and discussion, formulate a 3–5 page scholarly paper in APA format, providing an overview of the terms and function of EPB. An introduction, discussion and conclusion is expected in the overview on this topic

Directions:

Formulate the question.

Using the Cochrane database, research the question using the PICOT model and key words.

Post your topic and a short summary of results for feedback from your instructor and peers by Day 5.

Write a 3–5 page paper, reviewing evidence-based practice, as it relates to your practice question and integrate feedback from the instructor and/or peers.

Include a minimum of three evidence-based references.

To view the Grading Rubric for this Assignment, please visit the Grading Rubrics section of the Course Resources.

Assignment Requirements:

Before finalizing your work, you should:

be sure to read the Assignment description carefully (as displayed above);

consult the Grading Rubric (under the Course Resources) to make sure you have included everything necessary; and

utilize spelling and grammar check to minimize errors.

Your writing Assignment should:

follow the conventions of Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.);

be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful;

display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics; and

use APA 6th Edition format.

For assistance, visit the Writing Center.

How to Submit:

Submit your Assignment to the unit Dropbox before midnight on the last day of the unit.

When you are ready to submit your Assignment, select the unit Dropbox then attach your file. Make sure to save a copy of the Assignment you submit.

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MN 504 Scientific and Analytic Approaches to Advanced Evidence-Based Practice

Unit 4 Assignment

Interpreting Statistical Output for Data Analysis PowerPoint Presentation

Purpose:

The purpose of this Assignment is to enable you to present the information that you gather from a systematic review on your PICOT topic. This activity will give you the experience to present what your research findings to others.

Directions:

Define the clinical key questions based on PICOT.

Briefly review the database selected for key clinical questions.

Identify the studies of the database search that are a Level I or II evidence.

Interpret the statistical results of the studies identified in Step 3.

Design a presentation.

Place results /overview of research in PowerPoint.

Length of the presentation should be 12–15 slides.

Follow APA format.

To view the Grading Rubric for this Assignment, please visit the Grading Rubrics section of the Course Resources.

Assignment Requirements:

Before finalizing your work, you should:

be sure to read the Assignment description carefully (as displayed above);

consult the Grading Rubric (under the Course Resources) to make sure you have included everything necessary; and

utilize spelling and grammar check to minimize errors.

Your writing Assignment should:

follow the conventions of Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.);

be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful;

display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics; and

use APA 6th Edition format.

For assistance, visit the Writing Center.

How to Submit:

Submit your Assignment to the unit Dropbox before midnight on the last day of the unit.

When you are ready to submit your Assignment, select the unit Dropbox then attach your file. Make sure to save a copy of the Assignment you submit.

MN 504 Scientific and Analytic Approaches to Advanced Evidence-Based Practice

Unit 6 Assignment

Evidence-Based Clinical Question Search Assignment

Purpose:

The purpose of this Assignment is to give you a practical application to implement your PICOT idea, supported by the evidence-based research you have obtained in during your systematic review. You will apply evidence-based research findings discovered from your clinical question, and then integrate those to support your suggested change in nursing practice.

Directions:

Identify your refined PICOT question.

Using PubMed and the Cochrane collaboration database, do a systematic review of your clinical question.

Describe your systematic review and include an errors analysis.

Determine an evidence-based quantitative article from the search that contains an evidence-based randomized control trial.

Summarize the case study selected.

Describe the study approach, sample size, and population studied.

Apply the evidence from this review to your practice specifically in your overview.

Evaluate the outcomes, identifying the validity and reliability.

Discuss if the study contained any bias.

Determine the level of evidence identified in the review.

The length should be no less than 10 Pages in APA format.

To view the Grading Rubric for this Assignment, please visit the Grading Rubrics section of the Course Resources.

Assignment Requirements:

Before finalizing your work, you should:

be sure to read the Assignment description carefully (as displayed above)

consult the Grading Rubric (under the Course Resources) to make sure you have included everything necessary;

utilize spelling and grammar check to minimize errors; and

Your writing Assignment should:

follow the conventions of Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.);

be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful;

display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics; and;

use APA 6th edition format

How to Submit:

Submit your Assignment to the unit Dropbox before midnight on the last day of the unit.

When you are ready to submit your Assignment, submit to the unit Dropbox. Make sure to save a copy of your work and be sure to confirm that your file uploaded correctly.

MN 504 Scientific and Analytic Approaches to Advanced Evidence-Based Practice

Unit 8 Assignment

Purpose:

Explore conflict management principles and professional integrity through review of healthcare personnel conflict management review.

This conflict management assignment gives you the opportunity to review common conflict scenarios in clinical practice, and reflect on appropriate resolution strategies. This gives you a review of an evidence based approach to a training conflict management in healthcare settings.

Description:

Students will reference the conflict case management study from the nursing literature. Students will develop a summary and reflection consensus of strategies used to resolve the case review.

Forbat, L., Simons, J., Sayer, C., Davies, M., Barclay, S (2017). Training pediatric healthcare staff in recognizing, understanding and managing conflict with patients and families: findings from a survey on immediate 6-month impact. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 102 (3): 250.

Directions:

Students are expected to:

Create a brief and concise overview of the case study.

Develop a Poster Project PowerPoint, like an executive summary highlighting the main points of the case

Post the summary and one-slide poster to the Unit 10 Discussion Topic 2 for instructor feedback.

Submit the Summary and Poster Slide to the Unit 8 Dropbox

This is an opportunity to interact and learn from peers through discussion and exchange of ideas with professional integrity and collaborative discussion as a focus.

Have fun working with your teams, communicating within a smaller group and working towards a collaborative consensus in an online environment.

To view the Grading Rubric for this Assignment, please visit the Grading Rubrics section of the Course Resources.

Assignment Requirements:

Before finalizing your work, you should:

be sure to read the Assignment description carefully (as displayed above);

consult the Grading Rubric (under the Course Resources) to make sure you have included everything necessary; and

utilize spelling and grammar check to minimize errors.

Your writing Assignment should:

follow the conventions of Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.);

be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful;

display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics; and

use APA 6th Edition format.

For assistance, visit the Writing Center.

How to Submit:

Submit your Assignment to the unit Dropbox before midnight on the last day of the unit.

When you are ready to submit your Assignment, select the unit Dropbox then attach your file. Make sure to save a copy of the Assignment you submit.

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MN 504 Scientific and Analytic Approaches to Advanced Evidence-Based Practice

Unit 10 Assignment

Evaluating Organizational Change

Description:

This Assignment provides an overview of how to evaluate evidence-based practice quality improvement in a practice change.

Directions:

Introduce an overview of a healthcare system practice guideline, preferably where you work or have worked.

Discuss how different professionals in the healthcare system (Nurses, Pharmacists, Technicians, Nurse Educators, CFO, etc.) are held to this guideline.

Identify the research/reference used by the system to adopt the guideline.

Define the evidence used to define the guideline.

Determine the level of evidence used in the EBP identified.

Provide an opinion on how well this guideline is followed by professionals in the system.

Conclude with a concise overview of the guideline and the discussion in the paper.

Write the paper in 8–10 pages, using APA format.

To view the Grading Rubric for this Assignment, please visit the Grading Rubrics section of the Course Resources.

Assignment Requirements:

Before finalizing your work, you should:

be sure to read the Assignment description carefully (as displayed above)

consult the Grading Rubric (under the Course Resources) to make sure you have included everything necessary;

utilize spelling and grammar check to minimize errors; and

Your writing Assignment should:

follow the conventions of Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.);

be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful;

display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics; and;

use APA 6th edition format

How to Submit:

Submit your Assignment to the unit Dropbox by 11:59 pm ET on Sunday of the unit.

When you are ready to submit your Assignment, submit to the unit Dropbox. Make sure to save a copy of your work and be sure to confirm that your file uploaded correctly.

PART B

During this course, you must attend a mandatory clinical process orientation. This orientation will provide important information that you will need to prepare for your clinical experience. Sessions are held weekly, and are not recorded. You must attend one of the session, but are welcome to attend multiple sessions if you would like to do so. If you do not attend an orientation session, you will not be permitted to register for any clinical course and you will receive a “0” for the week 10 assignment, regardless of what is submitted for “Part A”. Here is the link to the meeting schedule: http://www.kushs.net/kaplan/ClinicalP/GraduateNursingOrientation.pdf. There are session options within the document. Choose the session you wish to attend.

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Walden NURS6521 Advanced Pharmacology Assignments

Walden NURS6521 Advanced Pharmacology Assignments

Walden NURS6521 Advanced Pharmacology Assignments

Week 1 Assignment: Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs

What type of drug should you prescribe based on your patient’s diagnosis? How much of the drug should the patient receive? How often should the drug be administered? When should the drug not be prescribed? Are there individual patient factors that could create complications when taking the drug? Should you be prescribing drugs to this patient? How might different state regulations affect the prescribing of this drug to this patient?

These are some of the questions you might consider when selecting a treatment plan for a patient.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Caiaimage

As an advanced practice nurse prescribing drugs, you are held accountable for people’s lives every day. Patients and their families will often place trust in you because of your position. With this trust comes power and responsibility, as well as an ethical and legal obligation to “do no harm.” It is important that you are aware of current professional, legal, and ethical standards for advanced practice nurses with prescriptive authority. Additionally, it is important to ensure that the treatment plans and administration/prescribing of drugs is in accordance with the regulations of the state in which you practice. Understanding how these regulations may affect the prescribing of certain drugs in different states may have a significant impact on your patient’s treatment plan. In this Assignment, you explore ethical and legal implications of scenarios and consider how to appropriately respond.

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To Prepare

Review the Resources for this module and consider the legal and ethical implications of prescribing prescription drugs, disclosure, and nondisclosure.

Review the scenario assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.

Search specific laws and standards for prescribing prescription drugs and for addressing medication errors for your state or region, and reflect on these as you review the scenario assigned by your Instructor.

Consider the ethical and legal implications of the scenario for all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patient’s family.

Think about two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your ethically and legally responsible decision-making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose any medication errors.

By Day 7 of Week 1

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

Explain the ethical and legal implications of the scenario you selected on all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patient’s family.

Describe strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario you selected. Be sure to reference laws specific to your state.

Explain two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your decision making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose your error. Be sure to justify your explanation.

Explain the process of writing prescriptions, including strategies to minimize medication errors.

 

NURS6521 Advanced Pharmacology

Week 2 Assignment

Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders

..heart disease remains the No. 1 killer in America; nearly half of all Americans have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoke—some of the leading risk factors for heart disease…

—Murphy et al., 2018

Despite the high mortality rates associated with cardiovascular disorders, improved treatment options do exist that can help address those risk factors that afflict the majority of the population today.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Science Photo Library RF

As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.

Reference: Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., & Arias, E. (2018). Mortality in the United States, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db328.htm

To Prepare

Review the Resources for this module and consider the impact of potential pharmacotherapeutics for cardiovascular disorders introduced in the media piece.

Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.

Select one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.

Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.

Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.

By Day 7 of Week 2

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.

Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.

Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.

 

NURS6521 Advanced Pharmacology

Walden NURS6521 Advanced Pharmacology Assignments Week 3 Assignment

Asthma and Stepwise Management

Asthma is a respiratory disorder that affects children and adults. Advanced practice nurses often provide treatment to patients with these disorders. Sometimes patients require immediate treatment, making it essential that you recognize and distinguish minor asthma symptoms from serious, life-threatening ones. Since symptoms and attacks are often induced by a trigger, advanced practice nurses must also help patients identify their triggers and recommend appropriate management options. Like many other disorders, there are various approaches to treating and managing care for asthmatic patients depending on individual patient factors.

Photo Credit: Getty Images

One method that supports the clinical decision making of drug therapy plans for asthmatic patients is the stepwise approach, which you explore in this Assignment.

To Prepare

Reflect on drugs used to treat asthmatic patients, including long-term control and quick relief treatment options for patients. Think about the impact these drugs might have on patients, including adults and children.

Consider how you might apply the stepwise approach to address the health needs of a patient in your practice.

Reflect on how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease.

By Day 7 of Week 3

Create a 5- to 6-slide PowerPoint presentation that can be used in a staff development meeting on presenting different approaches for implementing the stepwise approach for asthma treatment. Be sure to address the following:

Describe long-term control and quick relief treatment options for the asthma patient from your practice as well as the impact these drugs might have on your patient.

Explain the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management for your patient.

Explain how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease. Be specific.

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NURS6521 Advanced Pharmacology

Walden NURS6521 Advanced Pharmacology Assignments Week 4 Assignment

Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

Gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders affect the structure and function of the GI tract. Many of these disorders often have similar symptoms, such as abdominal pain, cramping, constipation, nausea, bloating, and fatigue. Since multiple disorders can be tied to the same symptoms, it is important for advanced practice nurses to carefully evaluate patients and prescribe a treatment that targets the cause rather than the symptom.

Once the underlying cause is identified, an appropriate drug therapy plan can be recommended based on medical history and individual patient factors. In this Assignment, you examine a case study of a patient who presents with symptoms of a possible GI/hepatobiliary disorder, and you design an appropriate drug therapy plan.

To Prepare

Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment

Reflect on the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and drugs currently prescribed.

Think about a possible diagnosis for the patient. Consider whether the patient has a disorder related to the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary system or whether the symptoms are the result of a disorder from another system or other factors, such as pregnancy, drugs, or a psychological disorder.

Consider an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.

By Day 7 of Week 4

Write a 1-page paper that addresses the following:

Explain your diagnosis for the patient, including your rationale for the diagnosis.

Describe an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.

Justify why you would recommend this drug therapy plan for this patient. Be specific and provide examples.

 

NURS6521 Advanced Pharmacology

Week 8 Assignment

Decision Tree for Neurological and Musculoskeletal

For your Assignment, your Instructor will assign you one of the decision tree interactive media pieces provided in the Resources. As you examine the patient case studies in this module’s Resources, consider how you might assess and treat patients presenting symptoms of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Science Photo Library RF

To Prepare

Review the interactive media piece assigned by your Instructor.

Reflect on the patient’s symptoms and aspects of the disorder presented in the interactive media piece.

Consider how you might assess and treat patients presenting with the symptoms of the patient case study you were assigned.

You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the diagnosis and treatment for this patient. Reflect on potential co-morbid physical as well as patient factors that might impact the patient’s diagnosis and treatment.

By Day 7 of Week 8

Write a 1- to 2-page summary paper that addresses the following:

Briefly summarize the patient case study you were assigned, including each of the three decisions you took for the patient presented.

Based on the decisions you recommended for the patient case study, explain whether you believe the decisions provided were supported by the evidence-based literature. Be specific and provide examples. Be sure to support your response with evidence and references from outside resources.

What were you hoping to achieve with the decisions you recommended for the patient case study you were assigned? Support your response with evidence and references from outside resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decision in the exercise. Describe whether they were different. Be specific and provide examples.

 

NURS6521 Advanced Pharmacology

Week 11 Assignment

Off-Label Drug Use in Pediatrics

The unapproved use of approved drugs, also called off-label use, with children is quite common. This is because pediatric dosage guidelines are typically unavailable, since very few drugs have been specifically researched and tested with children.

When treating children, prescribers often adjust dosages approved for adults to accommodate a child’s weight. However, children are not just “smaller” adults. Adults and children process and respond to drugs differently in their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.

Children even respond differently during stages from infancy to adolescence. This poses potential safety concerns when prescribing drugs to pediatric patients. As an advanced practice nurse, you have to be aware of safety implications of the off-label use of drugs with this patient group.

To Prepare

Review the interactive media piece in this week’s Resources and reflect on the types of drugs used to treat pediatric patients with mood disorders.

Reflect on situations in which children should be prescribed drugs for off-label use.

Think about strategies to make the off-label use and dosage of drugs safer for children from infancy to adolescence. Consider specific off-label drugs that you think require extra care and attention when used in pediatrics.

By Day 5 of Week 11

Write a 1-page narrative in APA format that addresses the following:

Explain the circumstances under which children should be prescribed drugs for off-label use. Be specific and provide examples.

Describe strategies to make the off-label use and dosage of drugs safer for children from infancy to adolescence. Include descriptions and names of off-label drugs that require extra care and attention when used in pediatrics. Walden NURS6521 Advanced Pharmacology Assignments.

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ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments

ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments

ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments

ECON312N Principles of Economics

Week 1 Discussion

Trade Offs, Opportunity Cost, and Factors of Production

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapter 1, 3

Lesson

Minimum of 1 scholarly source

Introduction

The basic economic problem that every society faces is the fact that resources “ often called the factors of production “ are not sufficient enough to satisfy everything a society would like to have. Thomas Sowell, a renowned economist said, The first lesson of economics is scarcity: there is never enough of anything to fully satisfy all those who want it. (Sowell, 1993, p. 131). This statement implies that to get one thing we like, we usually have to give up another thing that we like.

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Paul Samuelson, America’s first Nobel Prize winner for economics, is credited with providing the first clear explanation of the economic problem. He argued that in order to solve the problem of scarcity, societies must answer three basic questions:

What to produce?

How to produce it?

For whom it should be produced?

Firms produce goods and services, but what they produce and the quantity produced are largely determined by the needs and wants of consumers. Firms make decisions with respect to how goods and services are produced. In making these decisions, firms are faced with the decision on how to combine factors of production to produce the goods and services. For example, one of the decisions firms are frequently confronted with is the decision as to whether to use labor intensive or capital intensive methods of production. Finally, decisions on who will receive the goods or services produced will depend, to a large extent, on the distribution of income in the economy. Individuals with the highest incomes, for example, will have the ability to buy the most goods and services and, therefore, may have many goods and services produced for them.

Making decisions with respect to what, how, and for whom, requires that we trade-off one goal for another. Trade-offs are all the options we give up when we make a choice from competing alternatives. Opportunity cost, on the other hand, is the most valued alternative foregone or the next best alternative to any choice we make. It is important to note that the opportunity cost of a decision is the cost of the choice made in addition to the value or cost of the next best alternative foregone. Effective decision making requires a cost-benefit analysis – comparing the additional costs of alternatives with the additional benefits – of each of the alternatives we have to choose from.

Initial Post Instruction

For the initial post, address all of the following:

What important trade-offs have you made recently? What was the opportunity cost associated with the trade-off? To what extent did you integrate the concept of cost-benefit analysis in the decision-making process to arrive at the most cost effective and efficient choice? In other words, based on the information at your disposal at the time of making the decision, what steps did you take to ensure that you were making the absolute best decision? (Use actual examples from your own experiences or construct hypothetical examples).

Assuming that you are a business owner faced with questions of What to Produce? How to Produce? and For Whom to Produce? what factors would you consider in answering these questions? (Use actual examples from your own experiences or construct hypothetical examples).

ECON312N Principles of Economics

ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments Week 2 Discussion

Demand, Supply, and Market Equilibrium

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapter 4, 5

Lesson

Minimum of 1 scholarly source

Introduction

In a market-oriented economy, a change in the price of a product is usually caused by changes in the factors that affect the demand and/or the supply of the product and the price elasticity of the demand for and the supply of the product.

Consider the market for crude oil. As you know, changes in the price of crude oil affect just about everything that is made, transported, eaten, and sold in the United States. For example, a change in the price of crude oil is likely to affect the prices of products like jet fuel, gasoline, diesel, home heating oil, just to name a few. There is a strong correlation between the price of crude oil and the price of gasoline. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is the largest group of crude oil producing countries in the world. According to Statistica (2018), the average annual OPEC crude oil price has risen steadily from 2016 to 2018 as follows: $40.68 (2016), $52.51 (2017) and $67.33 (as of July 24, 2018). With the significant improvement in the economies of the U.S and other global economies and recent geopolitical events around the world, the price of crude oil is likely to continue to rise in the foreseeable future.

Initial Post Instructions

For the initial post, address the following:

Considering the demand and the supply sides of the crude oil market, provide a comprehensive analysis of domestic and international factors that may be driving the increases in the price of crude oil since 2016. ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments

If the price of crude oil continues to increase, how will the increases affect your buying behavior in the short-term and in the long-term, considering that the demand for most of the products derived from crude oil are typically inelastic?

Explain how changes in the price of gasoline affect your buying behavior of related goods like cars, the use of public transportation, vacations etc.?

Research shows that the demand for gasoline is inelastic. Suppose the price of gasoline continues to rise into the foreseeable future, as predicted. How would your purchases change in the short-term and in the long-term? Explain.

Suppose you have become very informed and convinced about the harmful effects of carbon emissions on both the environment and on public health. Will this newly acquired information change your demand for gasoline or the quantity of gasoline demanded? Explain.

Will the increase in the production of affordable electric cars change your demand or quantity demanded of gasoline? Explain.

ECON312N Principles of Economics

Week 3 Discussion

Concepts of Cost and Prices Under Different Market Structures

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapter 10, 11

Lesson

Minimum of 1 scholarly source (other than the article noted in the instructions)

Initial Post Instructions

For the initial post, address the following:

List and briefly explain the features of a Perfectly Competitive market structure. How do firms in a Perfectly Competitive market determine price and profit-maximizing output levels?

According to Papanicolas, Woskie, and Jha (2018), the main drivers of the cost of healthcare in the U.S are “labor and goods, including pharmaceuticals and devices, and administrative costs” (Conclusions and Relevance). If you were the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of a large medical facility, what cost-cutting measures would you propose to address the excessive cost of operating the facility while maintaining quality of care?

Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA): Special Communication: Question: Why is health care spending in the United States so much greater than in other high-income countries?

Findings: In 2016, the United States spent nearly twice as much as 10 high-income countries on medical care and performed less well on many population health outcomes. Contrary to some explanations for high spending, social spending and health care utilization in the United States did not differ substantially from other high-income nations. Prices of labor and goods, including pharmaceuticals and devices, and administrative costs appeared to be the main drivers of the differences in spending.

Meaning: Efforts targeting utilization alone are unlikely to reduce the growth in health care spending in the United States; a more concerted effort to reduce prices and administrative costs is likely needed.

ECON312N Principles of Economics

ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments Week 4 Discussion

DQ1 Market Concentration of Firms and the Determination of Price and Output

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapter 8, 12, 13

Lesson

Minimum of 1 scholarly source

Introduction

Firms in the healthcare industry do not seem to have features of a perfectly competitive market structure and, therefore, must not be classified as such. Those firms fall somewhere within the continuum from monopolistically competitive and oligopoly markets to monopoly markets (specifically regional monopolies).

Initial Post Instructions

For the initial post, decide if you agree or disagree with the introductory statement.

If you agree with this statement, provide at least two examples of firms in the healthcare industry (pharmaceutical companies, medical centers, insurance companies etc.) and identify the features the firms you selected have that make you believe that they should be classified in one or several of the following market structures: monopolistically competitive and oligopoly market structures; monopoly market structures.

If you disagree with the statement above, name at least two firms in the healthcare industry (pharmaceutical companies, medical centers, insurance companies etc.) and provide reasons why those firms you selected can be classified as perfectly competitive firms.

Note: the two examples must come from different industry groups – for example, both firms cannot be insurance companies.

DQ2 Foreign Exchange and the Balance of Trade

Introduction

The value of the U.S. dollar relative to the value of other major currencies has always been an issue of contention among foreign exchange experts and policymakers. There is a school of thought that strongly believes that keeping the value of the U.S. dollar high relative to other major currencies would be beneficial for the U.S. economy. On the other hand, there are those who feel that such a policy could be detrimental to the U.S. economy.

Initial Post Instructions

For the initial post, explain where you stand on the issue and provide reasons to support your position.

If you agree with keeping the value of the U.S. dollar high relative to other major currencies, identify one or more reasons that you find convincing about the line of argument presented by those opposed to a relatively high value for the dollar. What proposals would you make to allay the concerns of those opposed to it?

If you disagree with keeping the value of the U.S. dollar high relative to other major currencies, identify one or more reasons that you find compelling about the line of argument of proponents of a relatively high value for the dollar. What proposals would you make to ease the concerns of proponents of raising the value of the dollar?

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ECON312N Principles of Economics

Week 5 Discussion

Unemployment and Skills Mismatch

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapter 14, 15

Lesson

Introduction

In the last few years, there has been a debate about the main causes of the high rates of unemployment during the Great Recession (2008-2009). One line of argument is that there is a misalignment between the skill-sets required by employers and the skill-sets of job seekers, which continues to keep millions of Americans out of the job market. In an article published in MIT Technical Review Business Report, Majcher (2014) reported that “employers have 300,000 unfilled manufacturing jobs” which she attributes to the lack of the required skills needed in the manufacturing sector (para. 1).

Since 2010, there has been a steady decrease in the unemployment rate. In fact, in its April 2018 Hiring and Unemployment report, the Labor Department presented the unemployment rate as 3.9%. Despite this low rate of unemployment, there is still a significantly large number of people who cannot find jobs. In a research conducted by LiveCareer, it was reported that “companies claim they cannot find workers with the right skill sets, while workers complain that their existing skills are becoming obsolete due to technological change and automation of various job functions. Less skilled workers simply are not fit for many jobs in the digital age.” (LiveCareer, 2018, para. 1). The lack of well-trained and skilled workers, some worry, may have adverse consequences on the performance of the U.S economy as the economy grows and the productivity of labor becomes increasingly crucial in sustaining the growth. As pointed out in their 2017 report, the Business Roundtable – an association of chief executive officers of America’s leading companies – surveyed its members and reported that “as America continues to recover from the worst economic recession since 1930, our economic growth is hindered because the skills of today’s workers have not kept up with requirements of current and future jobs” (p. 1). This state of affairs, the report argues, is caused by the fact that “the working-age population is growing at half the rate of the past century; labor force participation is holding steadily below that of the past three decades and baby boomers are retiring in record numbers” (p. 1). The report went on to state that “no amount of automation or technological innovation can overcome these headwinds if our nation does not take action to ensure that our labor force holds the skills needed for today’s jobs and for the future” (p. 1).

Initial Post Instructions

For the initial post, address the following:

What educational and job training policy proposals would you like to see implemented to help resolve the apparent skills-mismatch in the U.S labor market?

ECON312N Principles of Economics

ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments Week 6 Discussion

Inflation in the Costs of Education and Healthcare

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapter 16

Lesson

Link (website): Bureau of Labor Statistics (Links to an external site.)

Introduction

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average monthly change in the price for goods and services paid by urban consumers between any two time periods. There are three steps in calculating the CPI. First, the Cost of the CPI market basket is calculated at base year prices. Second, the cost of the CPI market basket is calculated at current period prices. Finally, the CPI is calculated for the base period and the current period. The CPI is used to calculate changes in the cost of living and changes in the value of money. To measure these changes, we calculate the inflation rate, which is the percentage change in the price level from one year to the other. Due to the volatility in the prices of certain goods and services, the CPI basket (that includes all items that Americans spend most of their incomes on) might not be a reliable measure of inflationary and deflationary periods. To get a more accurate measure of CPI, therefore, food and energy items are removed from the basket to get Core CPI (Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers: All Items Less Food & Energy [CPILFESL]). This measure of the cost of living is often used as a benchmark for changes in the cost of other goods and services.

Two key components of CPI are the costs of Education and Healthcare. These two variables constitute what is known in Economics as Human Capital, which is a key determinant in the productivity of labor, and hence, essential for economic growth and development. In the last few decades, the value of these variables has risen faster than the value of the general level of prices (CPI), which they are subsets of. According to David Wiczer (2017), “the price of medical care has grown at an average annual rate of 5.3% while the entire basket (headline CPI) has grown at an average annual rate of 3.5%.” He goes on to state that “In the past 20 years, in the regime of stable inflation, headline CPI has grown at an average annual rate of 2.2%, whereas the price level of medical care has grown at an average annual rate of 3.6% – about 70% faster” (para. 1).

As shown in Figure 1, the increases in the costs associated with Healthcare and Education have consistently exceeded the overall cost of living during the period of observation (2000-2018). There are many consequences for the high cost of Healthcare and Education, not least of which are skipping expensive but necessary medical procedures, discouragement from pursuing career enhancing educational requirements, or resorting to educational loans with the potential for life-long financial consequences.

Graph showing the changes in medical care, education, and all items minus food and energy

Figure 1: Increases in the Overall Cost of Living (CPI) Vs. Increases in the Costs of Healthcare and Education.

Initial Post Instructions

For the initial post, address the following:

In your opinion, what are the implications of the high cost of Healthcare and Education on the Human Capital needs of the U.S economy?

What policies would you recommend to rein in these costs, or at least to slow down their rate of increase?

ECON312N Principles of Economics

Week 7 Discussion

The Federal Deficit and National Debt

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapter 18, 20

Lesson

Introduction

The federal debt is symptomatic of the nation’s persistent Budget Deficits as the National Debt is the accumulation of Budget Deficits. Deficits grew steadily during the Great Recession when there was a significant shortfall in government revenue, which required that the government pursue an expansionary Fiscal Policy to stimulate the economy. The recession is now over, but the Trump administration, at least for the first two years, pursued deficit spending. In a contribution to Forbes magazine, Chuck Jones (2018) points out that the U.S. Federal deficit was $587 billion in Obama’s last year in office, and it grew to $666 billion in the first year of Trump’s presidency. The Trump Administration’s Tax Reform plan and the two-year bipartisan budget, which passed in February 2018, are estimated, by many accounts, to cause the Federal Deficit to exceed 1 trillion dollars by 2020 (Jones, 2018). The implication of this growing deficit is a further increase in the National Debt.

From 1965 to through 2018, there has been a persistent increase in the Federal Debt. This trend became more pronounced during (and in the aftermath of) the recession of 2008-2009. As shown on Figure 1, in September of 2017, for example, the National Debt rose to 20.24 trillion U.S. dollars. This disturbing increase in the Federal Debt is likely to increase the per capita debt burden for each American citizen. According to Statistica (2018), if the debt owed in 2016 were distributed to every American citizen, the amount owed per capita would be 60,470 U.S. dollars.

Graph showing the total public debt increasing from 1970 to ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments2017 to 20.24 trillion U.S. dollars.

Figure 1: Federal Debt: Total Public Debt

As the U.S. Federal Debt increased over the years, so did the Federal Debt as a percentage of GDP. From 1965 to 2018, there has been a general increase in the Federal Debt as a percentage of GDP. Remarkably, this increase was very pronounced during (and in the aftermath) of the recession of 2008-2009, after a brief decline from 1995 to 2002. As shown on Figure 2, in the fourth quarter of 2017, the Debt to GDP ratio was 104%. The ratio compares what the U.S. owes to what it produces, and it serves as an indication of the U.S.’s ability to pay its debt. This number can also be interpreted as the number of years it would take for the U.S to pay back its debt if the nation’s GDP is used entirely to pay back its debt (Statistica, 2018).

Graph showing the total public debt as a percent of the gross domestic product. The Debt to GDP ratio was 104% in the fourth quarter of 2017.

Figure 2: Federal Debt: Total Public Debt as a Percent of GDP

Deficit hawks in Congress and conservative activists who railed against President Barack Obama’s spending plans called the GOP debt explosion “dangerous” “immoral” and “a betrayal.” American Conservative Union chairman Matt Schlapp warned the Republican-controlled Congress not to underestimate the impact of responsible spending for voters. In fact, President Trump, whose aides participated in the negotiations and the crafting of the Budget, had a little bit of buyer’s remorse when the Budget was presented to him. In a morning tweet, he threatened to veto the Budget, but later signed it. The Washington Post (2018) summed it up this way “Just hours after threatening a veto, President Trump said Friday afternoon that he had signed a ‘ridiculous’ $1.3 trillion spending bill passed by Congress early Friday, averting a Government Shutdown” (para. 1).

The spending situation has become so alarming that there are renewed calls – from both sides of the political aisle – for a Balanced Budget Amendment to the constitution based on the premise that unless restrained by constitutional rules, legislators will run budget deficits and spend excessively, especially if this would help their reelection efforts. Another basis of this argument is that politicians do not like to levy taxes on constituents, but like to spend on projects favored by their constituents or big political donors. This situation, they argue, creates an incentive structure that makes budget deficits almost inevitable.

Initial Post Instructions

For the initial post, address the following:

Do you agree that the constitution should be amended to include a Balanced Budget requirement? Why or why not?

If you agree with a constitutional amendment, can you identify one reason why some people may be opposed to it? What proposals would you make to allay the concerns of those people?

If you disagree with a constitutional amendment, can you identify a line of argument – made by the proponents of the constitutional amendment – that you find compelling? What do you find persuasive about that line of argument?

ECON312N Principles of Economics

Week 8 Discussion

Fiscal Policy Simulation Exercise

Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: all chapters

Lesson (This lesson provides an overview of The Fiscal Ship. Make sure to review before beginning this activity.)

Link (website): The Fiscal Ship (Links to an external site.) ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments

Introduction

Data analysis is an indispensable part of the study of Economics, and plays a significant role in the formulation of economic theory and policy. The Fiscal Ship game will be based on simulating Fiscal Policies to set the U.S budget on a sustainable path. This exercise also reinforces concepts taught in the course.

It is imperative that you read the Instructions provided to help you successfully play this game. Once you have familiarized yourself with the features of the simulation tool, click on the link for The Fiscal Ship to launch the game. Select New Game. Then, conduct your desired policy simulations.

Initial Post Instructions

Answer all of the following questions after you attempt to meet your target goal. If you have the desire and the time, you can play the game more than once in order to meet your target goal.

Specify where in the spectrum of political ideology you would consider yourself to be? Centrist, Progressive or Conservative.

State the Governing Goals you chose and provide reasons why you chose those goals.

Specify which of your policy choices had the largest impact on your fiscal target, and which barely moved the line. Were you surprised by the magnitude of any policy choices?

State whether or not the game made you reevaluate your initial governing goals?

Propose ways that you think the federal government should set the budget on a sustainable course in the next 25 years?

Remember to attach a screenshot of your budget solutions to your discussion post.

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Week 1 Homework

Question 1

Label each entry in the list as dealing with a microeconomic topic or a macroeconomic topic. Type microeconomic or macroeconomic for each item.

Motor vehicle production in China is growing by 10 percent a year.

Coffee prices rocket.

Globalization has reduced African poverty.

The government must cut its budget deficit.

microeconomic Apple sells 20 million iPhone 6 a month.

Question 2

A professor changes the penalty for cheating on exams from getting a 0 on the exam to getting an F in the course. The professor has

recognized that students don’t respond to incentives.

increased the marginal cost of cheating.

decreased the marginal benefit of cheating.

made all the students act in the social interest.

recognized that students don’t make rational choices.

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ECON312N Principles of Economics AssignmentsWeek 2 Homework

Question 1

Suppose over the next several years the productivity of firms producing electric cars improves dramatically. The advance in productivity leads to

an increase in the supply of electric cars so that the supply curve shifts leftward.

a decrease in the supply of electric cars so that the supply curve shifts leftward.

a decrease in the supply of electric cars so that the supply curve shifts rightward.

no change in the supply of electric cars, only a change in the quantity supplied of electric cars.

an increase in the supply electric cars so that the supply curve shifts rightward.

Question 2

Suppose the San Francisco 49ers lower ticket prices by 15 percent and as a result the quantity of tickets demanded increases by 10 percent. This set of results shows that San Francisco 49ers tickets have

an inelastic demand.

a unit elastic demand.

an inelastic supply.

an elastic supply.

an elastic demand.

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Week 3 Homework

Question 1

GM cuts jobs at its Australian manufacturing unit

GM will cut 500 jobs, or about 12% of its workforce, at its Australian plant because of a sharp fall in demand for its locally-made “Cruze” small car.

Source: The Wall Street Journal , April 8, 2013

As GM cuts its workforce, how will the marginal product and average product of a worker change in the short run?

Suppose that before the cuts the marginal product of GM workers is below their average product.

________________________

As the number of workers decreases, the marginal product of a GM worker ______ and the average product of a GM worker ______ in the short run.

?decreases; decreases

?increases; increases

?decreases; increases

?increases; decreases

does not? change; does not change

Question 2

Maryland farmers turn from tobacco to flowers

Maryland tobacco farmers will be subsidized if they switch from growing tobacco to growing crops such as flowers and organic vegetables.

Source: The New York Times ,February 25, 2001

How does offering farmers a payment to exit tobacco growing influence the opportunity cost of growing tobacco?

What is the opportunity cost of using the equipment owned by a tobacco farmer?

______________________

Offering farmers a payment to exit tobacco growing _______ the opportunity cost of growing tobacco.

The opportunity cost of using the equipment owned by a tobacco farmer is _______.

?decreases; the sum of the implicit and explicit costs of using the tobacco equipment

?increases; the next best alternative? forgone, which could be the production of flowers and organic vegetables

?decreases; the explicit cost of using the tobacco equipment

does not? change; the next best alternative? forgone, which could be the production of flowers and organic vegetables

?increases; the implicit cost of using the tobacco equipment

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ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments Week 4 Homework

Question 1

Consider the market for running shoes shown above. Before a tariff is imposed, if the United States trades with the world, then the United States produces ________ running shoes at a price of ________.

5 million; $40

3 million; $80

5 million; $80

3 million; $40

1 million; $40

Question 2

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of monopolistic competition?

few firms compete

easy entry and exit

small market share

no barriers to entry or exit

differentiated product

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Week 5 Homework

Question 1

U.S. real GDP

is not as accurate as nominal GDP when measuring standard of living changes over time.

excludes the value of underground production and leisure time.

measures the change in the price level over time.

precisely measures the improving standard of living in the United States.

includes the value of underground production but excludes the value of leisure time.

Question 2U.S. unemployment rate lowest since 2008

The Labor Department said that the economy added 146,000 jobs in November, and the unemployment rate fell to 7.7% from 7.9% in October. But it fell mainly because workers dropped out of the labor force.

Source: CNN Money, December 7, 2012

Explain why workers dropping out of the labor force lowers the unemployment rate and why by more than new jobs do.

____________________

When workers drop out of the labor force, the unemployment rate falls because _______.

the ratio of the number employed to the number unemployed increases

the percentage change in the number unemployed is less than the percentage change in the labor force

the percentage change in the number unemployed equals the percentage change in the labor force

the percentage change in the number unemployed is greater than the percentage change in the labor force

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Week 6 Homework

Question 1

All of the following can create a bias in the CPI EXCEPT the

new goods bias.

commodity substitution bias.

outlet substitution bias.

GDP price index bias.

quality change bias.

Question 2

Demand-pull inflation is an inflation that starts because _____.

of labor productivity growth

real GDP increases

aggregate supply decreases

aggregate demand increases

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ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments Week 8 Homework

Question 1

When the government’s expenditures exceed its tax revenue, the budget

has a deficit and the national debt is decreasing.

None of the above because by law the government’s expenditures cannot exceed its tax revenue.

has a deficit and the national debt is increasing.

has a surplus and the national debt is increasing.

is balanced and the national debt is increasing.

Question 2

Using the data in the above table, if potential GDP for this economy is $25 billion, then in order to restore full employment, the federal funds rate can be

lowered so that consumption expenditure and investment increase, though net exports decrease.

raised so that net exports increase.

raised so that consumption expenditure, investment, and net exports increase.

lowered so that consumption expenditure, investment, and net exports increase.

lowered so that government expenditure on goods and services increase.

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Week 2 Quiz

Question 1

In the above figure, the shift in the demand curve from D to D2 can be the result of

an increase in the price of a sub sandwich, a substitute for pizza.

an increase in income if pizza is a normal good.

a change in quantity demanded.

an increase in the price of soda, a complement to pizza.

a decrease in the supply of pizza that raises the price of pizza.

Question 2

The question “Should economics majors or sociology majors earn more after they graduate?” is an example of a ________ question.

for whom

what

how

why

where

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Week 4 Quiz

Question 1

Paulette owns a pizza parlor. Her total cost schedule is in the above table. Her total fixed cost is equal to

Some amount, but more information is needed to determine her fixed cost.

$35.

$85.

$79.

$20.

Question 2

Mylan Pharmaceuticals holds a patent on the EpiPen – designed to inject epinephrine into shock victims. In 2016, Mylan received criticism for charging $600 for this life-saving drug. The market for EpiPens is considered ________ which means that the price of an Epipen ________ its marginal cost.

perfect competition; equals

an oligopoly; equals

a monopoly; is greater than

a monopoly; equals

monopolistic competition; is greater than

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Week 6 Quiz

Question 1

In 2010, the GDP price index was 101.2 and real GDP was $14.8 trillion.

In 2011, nominal GDP was $15.5 trillion and real GDP was $15.0 trillion.

Calculate the increase in nominal GDP and the increase in the GDP price index in 2011.

The percentage increase in nominal GDP in 2011 is

The percentage increase in the GDP price index in 2011 is

Question 2

The change in potential real GDP and aggregate supply shown in the graph above can be a result of

a decrease in the money wage rate.

a decrease in the money price of oil.

an increase in the quantity of capital.

a fall in the price level.

an increase in the real wage rate.

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ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments Week 8 Quiz

Question 1

How do the Fed’s monetary policy actions influence the exchange rate?

The Fed influences the exchange rate by changing the U.S. interest rate differential.

The Fed influences the exchange rate by conducting transactions in the foreign exchange market.

The Fed can influence the exchange rate only if it changes expectations.

The Fed? can’t influence the exchange rate because the Fed has no influence on foreign interest rates.

Question 2

The Fed’s policy tools include

required reserve ratios, the discount rate, open market operations, and extraordinary crisis measures.

holding deposits for the U.S. government, reserve requirements, and the discount rate.

required reserve ratios, income tax rates, and open market operations.

setting regulations for lending standards and extraordinary crisis measures.

supervision of the banking system and buying and selling commercial banks.

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Week 3 Assignment

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Review Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5

Lesson

Minimum of 2 scholarly sources

Introduction

In Chapter 4 of the text, we learned that a market is in equilibrium when the demand curve intersects with the supply curve. The general notion in Economics is that when a market is in equilibrium, the desires of consumers are considered to be aligned with those of suppliers, and there is an efficient use of resources in the market. These conditions, however, do not always prevail in the market. There are times when there is, what is known as, a disequilibrium condition in the market. Under this condition, there is either a surplus or a shortage in the market. A surplus occurs when there is an excess of supply of a commodity over the quantity demanded. A shortage, on the other hand, is a situation where the quantity demanded of a product exceeds the supply of the product.

The preponderance of evidence in the market for the services provided by nurses is that there is an issue of perennial shortages that has lasted for several decades. Ms. Roberta Spohn, Assistant Executive Secretary of the American Nurses’ Association, Research and Statistics Unit, stated that “Although there are reports of manpower shortages in many other professional fields, nursing seems to enjoy the dubious distinction of continually suffering from this condition” (Spohn, 1954, p.865).

Activity Instructions

Provide a comprehensive analysis of demand and supply factors that seem to cause the persistent shortage of nurses in the U.S. Please make sure you address the following items, in your paper.

Identify, at least, five factors that are likely to cause the increase in the demand for nurses and five factors that are likely to cause a decline in the supply of nurses, or the failure of supply to keep up with demand.

What are the likely implications of the shortage of nurses on the quality of care given in U.S. hospitals?

What solutions do you propose to address this seemingly persistent issue of nursing shortages in the U.S.?

Has government policy intervention over the years helped or exacerbated the shortage of nurses? Provide reasons to justify your opinion.?

Writing Requirements (APA format)

Length: 2-4 pages (not including title page or references page)

1-inch margins

Double spaced

12-point Times New Roman font

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Week 5 Assignment

Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapter 14, 15

Lesson

Link (website): FRED Economic Data (Links to an external site.)

Minimum of 2 scholarly sources

Introduction

This assignment is based on the exploration and analysis of two of the most important economic variables used in economic analysis: Real GDP and Unemployment. These variables are compiled by the Bureau of Economic Analysis and are used extensively by the Federal Reserve of St Louis, in a database called FRED (Federal Reserve Economic Data), which is made up of nearly 140,000 economic time series from more than 50 data producers. The expectation is that at the end of the course, your new found ability to extract, manipulate, and understand economic data will be an enduring benefit from taking this course. ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments

Activity Instructions

For this assignment, complete the following in the FRED Economic Data website:

Part A: Plot real GDP (Percent Change from Quarter One Year Ago – Quarterly Data) from 1977 (January) to 2018 (January). Note that the shaded areas on the graph show periods during which there were recessions.

Part B: Plot several measures of Unemployment from either 1977 or 1997 (Q1 – January) to 2018 (January) as specified in the instructions. Note that the shaded areas on the graph show periods during which there were recessions.

After plotting each graph in Part A and each Multi-Series Graph in Part B, copy and paste the graphs in a Word document. Then, provide a detailed comparative analysis of the performances of the variables. See the specific question in Parts A and B that follow.

Accessing and Using the FRED Website

Click on the link for the FRED Economic Data website (in the Required Resources area). Then, follows these steps:

Once you are at the website, copy and paste the research variable in the data (search) window. Click on the “magnifying glass” (search icon) to the left of the window.

A new page opens with the variable listed. Click on the variable.

A page opens with the graph. Change the dates in the date window to the right.

To select the beginning date, click inside the first window and click on the arrows to get to the desired year. After selecting the year, a new window opens with a list of months. Select the desired month.

Click the second window and repeat step #4 to choose the end date.

After selecting the desired dates, the graph appears.

With the graph well-centered on your computer screen, press on the PrtScr/SystRq key of your keyboard to copy the graph on the screen. Alternatively, you can also use the snipping tool on your computer to capture the graph. Note that the combination for a Screen Shot may be different for laptops.

Paste the graph in a Word document where you are writing your detailed analysis of the performances of the variables. Hint: make sure the following labels appear on the cropped graph: “FRED Graph” at the top left and “fred.stlouis.org” on the bottom right.

Part A: GDP: A Measure of Total Production and Income (Chapter 14)

Plot real GDP (FRED code: A191RO1Q156NBEA) from 1977 (January) to 2018 (January).

Provide a brief description of the general performance of the output of goods and services produced in the United States during periods of recessions (from 1980 to 2009).

Provide a general description of the performance of the economy during the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009 (Hint: focus your discussion on the following economic indicators: unemployment rates, incomes, profits, financial markets, real estate market etc.).

Plot real GDP per Capita (FRED code: A939RC0Q052SBEA) from 1977 (January) to 2018 (January).

Provide a general description of the performance of real GDP per capita from 1977 to 2018.

Most Economists, Policymakers, Social Scientists, and Business Analysts use a country’s real GDP per capita as the main indicator of the average person’s standard of living in that country. Robert Kennedy expressed his disagreement with the over-reliance on the use of GDP per capita with the following comments:

Gross Domestic Product, he argues “… does not allow for the health of our children, the quality of their education, or the joy of their play. It does not include the beauty of our poetry or the strength of our marriages, the intelligence of our public debate or the integrity of our public officials. It measures neither our courage, nor our wisdom, nor our devotion to our country. It measures everything, in short, except that which makes life worthwhile, and it can tell us everything about America except why we are proud that we are Americans” (1968, para. 23).

Do you agree or disagree with the late Robert Kennedy’s assessment of the importance of GDP per capita in determining the standard of living? Provide reasons to support your position.

Part B: Jobs and Unemployment (Chapter 15)

Items A-E below will require Multi-Series Graphs. This means plotting a graph with more than one variable (line). To add an additional line (variable) to a graph, you will first plot the initial variable, then click on the tab labeled as “Edit Graph.” An Edit Graph box opens. Click on the tab labeled “Add Line” within the Edit Graph box, and type the FRED code for the additional variable and hit enter. Select the correct variable from the list that populates and click the “add data series” tab. Note: you will do a separate Multi-Series Graph for each grouping (A-E) below:

Measures of Unemployment

Plot the variable Civilian Unemployment Rate (FRED code: UNRATE) from 1997 (January) to 2018 (January). (Note: this is the official Unemployment Rate)

Create a Multi-Series Graph and plot the variable Special Unemployment Rate (FRED Code – U6RATE) from 1994 (January) to 2018 (January). (Note: this is Total Unemployed, Plus All Marginally Attached Workers, Plus Total Employed Part-Time for Economic Reasons, as a Percent of the Civilian Labor Force plus all Marginally Attached Workers).

Duration Unemployment

Plot the variable Of Total Unemployed, Percent Unemployed Less Than 5 Weeks (FRED code: LNS13008397) from 1977 (January) to 2018 (January).

Create a Multi-Series Graph and plot the variable Of Total Unemployed, Percent Unemployed 27 Weeks and Over (FRED code: LNS13025703) from 1977 (January) to 2018 (January).

Educational Attainment

Plot the variable Unemployment Rate – Bachelor’s Degree and Higher, 25 years and over (FRED code: LNS14027662) from 1997 (January) to 2018 (January).

Create a Multi-Series Graph and plot the variable Unemployment Rate – High School Graduates, No College, 25 years and over (FRED code: LNU04027660) from 1997 (January) to 2018 (January).

Gender

Plot the variable Unemployment Rate – Men (FRED code: LNS14000001) from 1977 (January) to 2018 (January).

Create a Multi-Series Graph and plot the variable Unemployment Rate – Women (FRED code: LNS14000002) from 1977 (January) to 2018 (January).

Race

Plot the variable Unemployment Rate – White (FRED code: LNS14000003) from 1977 (January) to 2018 (January).

Create a Multi-Series Graph and plot the variable Unemployment Rate – Black (FRED code: LNS14000006) from 1977 (January) to 2018 (January).

Create a third line (variable) on this graph by plotting the variable Unemployment Rate – Hispanic (FRED code: LNS14000009) from 1977 (January) to 2018 (January).

Using the graphs on measures of unemployment, duration of unemployment, educational attainment, gender and race, provide a comprehensive assessment of the labor market during the period of the Great Recession (2007 to 2009). (NOTE: In responding to this question, please briefly comment on the employment situations before and after the Great Recession).

Writing Requirements (APA format)

Length: 3-5 pages (not including title page or references page)

1-inch margins

Double spaced

12-point Times New Roman font

Title page

References page (minimum of 2 sources)

<pclass=”msonormal” style=”box-sizing: border-box; overflow-wrap: break-word;”>ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments

Week 7 Assignment

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Review all chapters (Weeks 1-7)

Lesson: Week 1-7

Minimum of 4 scholarly sources

Introduction

There are several problems that every economy must contend with. The culmination of these problems is often a recession or an inflation, each of which requires an extensive policy prescription. A recession is technically defined as two consecutive periods of negative growth in real GDP. The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) which dates U.S. recessions defines recession as “a significant decline in economic spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally in real GDP, real income, employment, industrial production and wholesale-retail sales.” (NBER, 2008, para. 2). Inflation is measured by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) as an increase in the overall price in the economy. The inflation rate is the percentage change in the prices of goods and services from one period to the other. To measure the percentage change in the general level of prices, economists use the GDP deflator method or the Consumer Price Index (CPI) method. It is important to note that as the general level of prices rise, the purchasing power – or value – of money diminishes, and as the general level of prices decline, the value or purchasing power of money rises.

When an economy is going through recessionary or inflationary periods, two key policy prescriptions are used to deal with either problem are Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy. Fiscal Policy is often initiated by the executive branch of government and approved by the legislative branch of government. The main tools of Fiscal Policy are Taxes and Government Spending. Monetary Policy, on the other hand, is conducted by the Federal Reserve Board. The main tools of Monetary Policy are Required Reserve Ratio, Discount Rate, and Open Market Operation.

A recessionary gap (see Figure 1) occurs when the full employment equilibrium in an economy falls short of potential GDP.

Below full employment macroeconomic equilibrium graph with price level on y-axis and real GDP on x-axis

Figure 1: Below Full Employment Macroeconomic Equilibrium. Reprinted from Bade &Parkin (2018, p. 545).

Activity Instructions

For this assignment, complete the following:

If you were an economic advisor to both the President and the Chair of the Federal Reserve Board, what Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy recommendations would you make to deal with a recession?

In the literature on Health Economics, there is a significant amount of research on the impact of the Great Recession (2008-2009) on the nursing profession. If you were the Health Policy Advisor to the President, what specific recommendations would you make to the President to minimize the effects of recessions on the nursing profession?

In the implementation of Fiscal and Monetary Policies, discuss the limitations of these policies and explain how the limitations are likely to affect the effectiveness of your recommendations.

Note: In making the recommendations, provide clear and concise channels of transmission of the policy from its implementation to its effect on Aggregate Demand or Aggregate Supply. Providing channels of transmission shows the ripple effect of an event on one or more variables in the process of achieving an ultimate Macroeconomic objective.

Example

Sample Question: What is the effect of an increase in U.S. Exports?

Sample Answer: An increase in U.S exports will increase Business Investments (I) and Household Consumption (C). The increases in consumer spending and Business Investments will increase Aggregate Demand (AD) which will shift the AD curve to the right. The rightward shift in the AD curve, assuming the Aggregate Supply curve does not shift, will cause an increase in the general level of prices and an increase in real GDP.

Before you answer the question, identify the four phases of the Business Cycle and indicate which of the phase is associated with a recession.

Writing Requirements (APA format)

Length: 3-5 pages (not including title page or references page)

1-inch margins

Double spaced

12-point Times New Roman font

Title page

References page (minimum of 4 scholarly sources) ECON312N Principles of Economics Assignments

Uncategorized

Assignment: Fetal Abnormality Case Study Paper

Assignment: Fetal Abnormality Case Study Paper

Assignment: Fetal Abnormality Case Study Paper

PHI-413V Fetal Abnormality Case Study Assignment

Based on “Case Study: Fetal Abnormality” and other required topic study materials, write a 750-1,000-word reflection that answers the following questions:

  1. What is the Christian view of the nature of human persons, and which theory of moral status is it compatible with? How is this related to the intrinsic human value and dignity?
  2. Which theory or theories are being used by Jessica, Marco, Maria, and Dr. Wilson to determine the moral status of the fetus? What from the case study specifically leads you to believe that they hold the theory you selected? PHI-413V Fetal Abnormality Case Study Assignment
  3. How does the theory determine or influence each of their recommendations for action?
  4. What theory do you agree with? Why? How would that theory determine or influence the recommendation for action?

ORDER CUSTOMIZED SOLUTIONS – Assignment: Fetal Abnormality Case Study Paper

Remember to support your responses with the topic study materials.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. PHI-413V Fetal Abnormality Case Study Assignment

This assignment uses a rubric.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

Rubric

Explanation of the Christian view of the nature of human persons and the theory of moral status that it is compatible is clear, thorough, and explained with a deep understanding of the connection between them. Explanation is supported by topic study materials. 30% PHI-413V Fetal Abnormality Case Study Assignment

The theory or theories that are used by each person to determine the moral status of the fetus is explained clearly and draws insightful relevant conclusions. Rationale for choices made is clearly supported by topic study materials and case study examples. 15% PHI-413V Fetal Abnormality Case Study Assignment

Explanation of how the theory determines or influences each of their recommendations for action is clear, insightful, and demonstrates a deep understanding of the theory and its impact on recommendation for action. Explanation is supported by topic study materials. 15%

Evaluation of which theory is preferable within personal practice along with how that theory would influence personal recommendations for action is clear, relevant, and insightful. 10%

Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear. PHI-413V Fetal Abnormality Case Study Assignment

Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

All format elements are correct.

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

Case Study: Fetal Abnormality

Jessica is a 30-year-old immigrant from Mexico City. She and her husband Marco have been in the United States for the last three years and have finally earned enough money to move out of their Aunt Maria’s home and into an apartment of their own. They are both hard workers. Jessica works 50 hours a week at a local restaurant and Marco has been contracting side jobs in construction. Six months before their move to an apartment, Jessica finds out she is pregnant.

our months later, Jessica and Marco arrive at the county hospital, a large, public, nonteaching hospital. A preliminary ultrasound indicates a possible abnormality with the fetus. Further scans are conducted, and it is determined that the fetus has a rare condition in which it has not developed any arms and will not likely develop them. There is also a 25% chance that the fetus may have Down syndrome.

Dr. Wilson, the primary attending physician, is seeing Jessica for the first time, since she and Marco did not receive earlier prenatal care over concerns about finances. Marco insists that Dr. Wilson refrain from telling Jessica the scan results, assuring him that he will tell his wife himself when she is emotionally ready for the news. While Marco and Dr. Wilson are talking in another room, Aunt Maria walks into the room with a distressed look on her face. She can tell that something is wrong and inquires of Dr. Wilson. After hearing of the diagnosis, she walks out of the room wailing loudly and praying aloud.

Marco and Dr. Wilson continue their discussion, and Dr. Wilson insists that he has an obligation to Jessica as his patient and that she has a right to know the diagnosis of the fetus. He furthermore is intent on discussing all relevant factors and options regarding the next step, including abortion. Marco insists on taking some time to think of how to break the news to Jessica, but Dr. Wilson, frustrated with the direction of the conversation, informs the husband that such a choice is not his to make. Dr. Wilson proceeds back across the hall, where he walks in on Aunt Maria awkwardly praying with Jessica and phoning the priest. At that point, Dr. Wilson gently but briefly informs Jessica of the diagnosis and lays out the option for abortion as a responsible medical alternative, given the quality of life such a child would have. Jessica looks at him and struggles to hold back her tears.

Jessica is torn between her hopes of a better socioeconomic position and increased independence, along with her conviction that all life is sacred. Marco will support Jessica in whatever decision she makes but is finding it difficult not to view the pregnancy and the prospects of a disabled child as a burden and a barrier to their economic security and plans. Dr. Wilson lays out all of the options but clearly makes his view known that abortion is “scientifically” and medically a wise choice in this situation. Aunt Maria pleads with Jessica to follow through with the pregnancy and allow what “God intends” to take place and urges Jessica to think of her responsibility as a mother.

Topic 2: Optional Study Materials

Human Dignity: A First Principle

“Human Dignity: A First Principle,” by Mitchell, from Ethics & Medicine (2014).

https://search-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/1610748447/fulltextPDF/FC4B7FE8C99D4F60PQ/3?accountid=7374

The Dilemma of Prenatal Screening

“The Dilemma of Prenatal Screening,” by Best, from Ethics & Medicine: An International Journal of Bioethics (2018).

https://link-galegroup-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/apps/doc/A544829324/AONE?u=canyonuniv&sid=AONE&xid=ea53e4d8

Abortion Opposing Viewpoints

“Abortion Opposing Viewpoints” from the Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection (2018).

https://link-galegroup-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/apps/doc/PC3010999336/OVIC?u=canyonuniv&sid=OVIC&xid=3aea90e5

The Feminist Case Against Abortion

“The Feminist Case Against Abortion,” by Foster, from The Human Life Review (2017).

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLAn4291577&site=ehost-live&scope=site

The Metaphysical Status of the Embryo: Some Arguments Revisited

“The Metaphysical Status of the Embryo: Some Arguments Revisited,” by Oderberg, from Journal of Applied Philosophy (2008).

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=34805632&site=ehost-live&scope=site

A Christian Philosopher’s View of Recent Directions in the Abortion Debate

“A Christian Philosopher’s View of Recent Directions in the Abortion Debate,” by Lee, from Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality (2004).

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a2h&AN=15219284&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Moral Status and the Margins of Human Life

“Moral Status and the Margins of Human Life,” by Lee, from the American Journal of Jurisprudence (2015).

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ofs&AN=103605188&site=ehost-live&scope=site

PHI-413V Topic 2 Overview

Example Essay: God, Humanity, and Human Dignity

Introduction

Although there has recently been an explosion of scientific knowledge regarding Homo sapiens (i.e., human beings) such as the Human Genome Project (National Human Genome Research Institute, 2015) there is much more to what it means to be human than what science alone can tell us. The question about what it means to be a human person is fundamentally a philosophical and theological question that has been a topic of debate for millennia (“Personal Identity,” 2014). We will focus on two aspects of this question: (1) what kind of a thing is a human person? and (2) what (if anything) makes human beings valuable and worthy of dignity and respect? Assignment: Fetal Abnormality Case Study Paper. The Christian worldview claims that human beings are the kind of creature that is created by God and that is both a physical and spiritual being capable of relationship with God. In this view, human beings are intrinsically valuable and worthy of dignity and respect because they are created in the “image of God.” This discussion will address different views of what a human person is and focus on the distinctives of the Christian view regarding the value of persons.

Moral Status

A term commonly used by ethicists in medical field to talk about a human person’s worth or value is moral status (see Beauchamp & Childress, 2013, pp. 62-94). Moral statusexplains which sorts of beings or entities are valuable and have rights to be treated in certain ways. You might begin by asking, “Why is it that my neighbor has a certain kind of value and a rock does not?” Any answer one gives will describe certain characteristics or capacities that differentiate the neighbor from a rock. These characteristics or capacities explain why the entity has the value it does. For example, we might say that my neighbor has moral status (i.e., value or worth) because he or she is a rational being, or because he or she has the capacityto feel pain and pleasure, etc. Thus, to talk about a being’s moral status is to talk about a being’s value, as well as why it has that value. The focus here is the moral status of human personsDoes moral status differ among persons? It will be clear below that according to the Christian worldview, moral status does not differ from person to person. PHI-413V Fetal Abnormality Case Study Assignment

It is nevertheless common for people (including health care professionals) to think and act in ways that assign higher or lower moral status to human persons based on certain characteristics and capacities. The following five theories of moral status are different views regarding what makes human persons valuable. Each of these theories will pick a certain set of characteristics or capacities and claim that a human person is valuable (i.e., has moral status) only if he or she possesses the relevant characteristic or capacity. Consider carefully each of the following theories: (1) a theory based on human properties, (2) a theory based on cognitive properties, (3) a theory based on moral agency, (4) a theory based on sentience, and (5) a theory based on relationships. Assignment: Fetal Abnormality Case Study Paper.

It is nevertheless common for people (including health care professionals) to think and act in ways that assign higher or lower moral status to human persons based on certain characteristics and capacities. The following five theories of moral status are different views regarding what makes human persons valuable. Each of these theories will pick a certain set of characteristics or capacities and claim that a human person is valuable (i.e., has moral status) only if he or she possesses the relevant characteristic or capacity. Consider carefully each of the following theories: (1) a theory based on human properties, (2) a theory based on cognitive properties, (3) a theory based on moral agency, (4) a theory based on sentience, and (5) a theory based on relationships.

1.      The theory based on  human properties  holds that it is only and distinctively human properties that confer moral status upon a human being. It follows that all and only human beings, or Homo sapiens, have full moral status. Some of the characteristics that would endow a human being with moral status would include being conceived from human parents, or having a human genetic code. In this view, one only needs to be a human being to count as having full moral status. Assignment: Fetal Abnormality Case Study Paper.

2.      The theory based on  cognitive properties  holds that it is not any sort of biological criteria or species membership (such as the theory based on human properties) that endows a human being with moral status. Rather, it is cognitive properties that confer moral status upon a human being. In this context “cognition refers to processes or awareness such as perception, memory, understanding, and thinking…[and] does not assume that only humans have such properties, although the starting model for these properties is again the competent human adult” (Beauchamp & Childress, 2013, p. 69). Notice carefully this is claiming that if a human being does not have these properties, it follows that such a human being does not have moral status or value.

3.      The theory based on  moral agency  holds that “moral status derives from the capacity to act as a moral agent”; in this view a human being is considered a moral agent if they “are capable of making judgments about the rightness or wrongness of actions and has motives that can be judged morally” (Beauchamp & Childress, 2013, p. 72).

4.      The theory based on  sentience  holds that having sentience confers moral status on a being. Sentience in this context is “consciousness in the form of feeling, especially the capacity to feel pain and pleasure, as distinguished from consciousness as perception or thought.” (Beauchamp & Childress, 2013, p. 73). According to this theory the capacity of sentience is sufficient for moral status (i.e., the ability to feel pain and pleasure confer moral status to a human being). Assignment: Fetal Abnormality Case Study Paper.

5.      The theory based on  relationships  holds that relationships between human beings account for a human being’s moral status. In other words, a human being has moral status only if he or she has a relationship with others who value him or her. Usually these are relationships that establish roles and obligations such as a patient-physician relationship or a parent-child relationship. Of course, there are many types of relationships (family, genetic, legal, work, etc.), even ones in which one party in the relationship does not desire or value the other party. In such a case, a person who holds this theory may be forced to concede that a being’s moral status may change, depending on the other party.

Each of the theories above have the following logical structure:

“Human being X has full moral status if and only if it exhibits property Y

X− the human being in question (i.e., embryo, fetus, 12-month baby)

Y− The property that confers moral status upon that entity (i.e., human properties, cognitive properties, moral agency, sentience, or a relationship in which someone else values X).

Notice carefully that different worldviews would apply these theories differently depending on how they would think about the nature of human persons. It may be that thinking about the value of human beings according to such theories is not compatible with a particular worldview. In fact, the only theory above that is compatible with the Christian worldview is the first theory based on human properties. According to the Christian worldview all a human being needs to have full moral status or value is to be human. However, there is much more to the Christian position as will be seen below.

The Nature of Humanity: Divine Image Bearers

One of the most powerful concepts of the Christian worldview is the truth revealed in Genesis 1:26-27 that humanity was created in the image of God (or imago Dei in Latin)–spirit beings like him. But you were created with both a spirit and a body, indicating that this is your natural state. This becomes even clearer as you learn in the New Testament that one day you will be resurrected to new glorified bodies (1 Cor. 15:42-53). Assignment: Fetal Abnormality Case Study Paper.

There is some diversity of opinion among Christians about what the Bible means by the “image of God,” but fundamentally it is what sets human beings apart from all other creatures and what endows human beings with intrinsic value and dignity. To have intrinsic value and dignity means that one’s value and dignity do not come from anything external or extrinsic. For example, money has value that is purely external or extrinsic because we value it, not for its own sake, but for the things it can get us. Furthermore, there is not something intrinsically valuable to green paper (in the United States) that gives it worth. By contrast, a human being’s value and dignity is inherent such that it is something everyone possess by the very nature of what it means to be human. Human beings have intrinsic value and dignity because they are the only creatures that are created in the image of God.

The image of God is equally present in all human beings regardless of one’s worldview or religion or whether or not one believes in God. Millard Erickson notes

there is no indication that the image is present in one person to a greater degree than in another. Superior natural endowments, such as high intelligence, are not evidence of the presence or degree of the image. [Furthermore], the image is not correlated with any variable…[but is] something in the very nature of humans, in the way in which they were made. It refers to something a human being is rather than something a human being has or does. (Erickson, 1998, pp. 557-558)

It follows then that any theory of moral status which equates a human being’s value with certain external characteristics, or any function a human being must do, is not compatible with a Christian view of human persons. In addition, the image of God provides a foundation for the genuine equality of all human beings regardless of race, color, creed, gender, etc. It should be noted that the well-known bioethical principle of “respect for persons” (National Commission, 1979) is well supported by the Christian worldview. Assignment: Fetal Abnormality Case Study Paper.

While the image of God is equally present in all, its full expression may be hampered by disease, disability, or even sin. The image of Godalso indicates that you also have remnants of God’s character within you, and when fully expressed may include the capability to love (even those who seem unlovable), the capability to create for purpose or simply for beauty, the ability to reason on a very high level, the ability to explore the universe, the capability to communicate with our Creator and to consciously worship him, the ability to sacrifice for others, the ability to be fair (a sense of justice), and an innate ability to sense right and wrong (a sense morality).

But Christians have been called to an even higher purpose–to be conformed to the image of Christ (Rom. 8:29)–that is, restored to the perfect image of God; a lifelong process sometimes called sanctification. The body of a Christian is referred to in 1 Corinthians 6:19-20 as the temple of the Holy Spirit, and as such, Christians are to purify themselves, being transformed by the renewing of their mind (Rom. 12:2).

Humanity was created to love as God loves, to worship and commune with him as he does with us, and to work as he works. Adam and Eve were commanded to be fruitful and multiply, and they were given dominion over all the earth (Gen. 1:28), which is a high order. They were placed in a beautiful garden to care for it and “work and keep it” (Gen. 2:15 NIV). Adam was even given the task of naming all the animals, thus becoming the first biologist, doing a work that continues to this day as new species are still being discovered. Thus, humanity from the beginning was engaged in good work and given responsibility and authority over other creatures, to care for them, and to expand God’s kingdom under his sovereign rule. Unfortunately, as will be seen in the next discussion, human beings are fallen image bearers.

Conclusion

While most people in our culture happen to believe that human beings are valuable and worthy of dignity and respect, it is important to stop and actually think about what this means. The question is whether or not one’s worldview provides an adequate explanation for these beliefs. Notice carefully how the Christian worldview addresses human dignity and value, and begin to ask yourself how your worldview would explain the value and worth of human beings. Assignment: Fetal Abnormality Case Study Paper.

References

Beauchamp, T. L., & Childress, J. (2013). Principles of biomedical ethics (7th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Erickson, M. J. (1998). Christian theology (2nd Ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.

National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. (1979). The Belmont report: Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research. Retrieved from

http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.html

National Human Genome Research Institute. (2015). All about the human genome project. Retrieved from http://www.genome.gov/10001772/

Personal identity. (2014). In Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/identity-personal/. Assignment: Fetal Abnormality Case Study Paper.

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