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Risk assessment is an examination of possible threats and hazards. Risk assessment is important in every system, and the healthcare system is no exception. The goal of risk assessment in healthcare is to measure the readiness of the healthcare system and ensure that it will not cause risks to patients or organization. The paper is aimed at the investigation of risk assessment and management related to the healthcare system.Assignment: Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods
Ryan et al. (2012) state that risk management is the process that includes identifying, assessing, analyzing, and managing risks. There are three major resources that were designed to help managers to assess and manage risks that influence patient’s safety and well-being. These documents were created by the National Patient Safety Agency. Although the documents were created from 2006 to 2008, they are still relevant and useful.
In the first document called Risk Assessment Programme, the National Patient Safety Agency (2006) is mainly focused on the patient safety risk assessment process. This process is considered at the stage of commissioning. The document Healthcare Risk Assessment Made Easy (2007) is aimed at emphasizing the difference between a hazard and a risk. Besides, the National Patient Safety Agency (2007) describes the five main stages of risk management. A Risk Matrix for Risk Managers (2008) describes an integrated system of risk assessment. The National Patient Safety Agency (2007) divide this document into five sections: guidance on consequence scoring; guidance on likelihood scoring; risk scoring and grading; relationship with incident scoring; and a model matrix.
There are a lot of types of risks related to patient care such as clinical, environmental, financial, political, and others. According to the National Patient Safety Agency (2006), “risk is inherent in all aspects of healthcare, including organizational strategy and business planning; financial planning; projects and service developments; purchasing; design of services; treatment and care delivery” (p. 6). Risk assessment is extremely important because it can directly or indirectly affects patient’s health. Assignment: Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods
The risk assessment is to be a key tool for every healthcare organization. Verlicchi, Al Aukidy, Galletti, Petrovic, & Barceló (2012) underline that hospitals are the brightest example of those places where the risk assessment is necessary. Although hospitals are aimed at providing health and comfortable conditions for patients, there are some certain factors that are considered to be dangers. For instance, Covello and Merkhoher (2013) emphasize that there are dangers related to environmental health and safety such as different radioactive materials, infectious, smoke, fire, and others. That is why the risk assessment is to be implemented to remediate certain dangers in hospitals. Apart from this, hospitals face the risks that refer to physical and financial securities. These risks have to be taken into account too.
To sum up, the risk assessment is an essential part of healthcare management. There are different areas of medical administration where the risk management is to be implemented. Health managers identify, assess, analyze, and manage risks. Every healthcare organization has to introduce certain strategies and policies to remediate risks related to patient care.
In the era of introduction of programs that evaluate the risk involved in managing of disease by analyzing the risks involved through the thorough examination of clinical data collected by the help of general practitioners, pharmacies and major hospital records
As such programs have scaled to a lager extent with still a lot of scope, it has become critically essential to justify their returns. It is no longer sufficient to defend a program based on an illustrated ROI. Insurers are spectacle about which members are being identified and how, what interventions can be applied to them most effectively, and which mechanism leads to genuine behaviour change and savings .
This points to the fact that the insurers and program developers are just becoming smarter about the economic pay back and optimization of the disease management programs hence resulting in the sudden demand and increase in data procurement These data requirements will only increase in the future for optimization of disease management efforts. This will require intensive risk profiling, predictive modelling and stratification on the part of all who are involved in program design and execution . Assignment: Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods
WHAT IS RISK STRATIFICATION?
Exact definitions of risk stratification in theoretical terms are given below,
“The constellation of activities (e.g. Lab and clinical testing) used to determine a person’s risk for suffering a particular condition and need for preventive intervention.”(McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine)
“The method of delimiting sub-populations within a cohort which have different risks of a particular outcome, based upon severity of illness and co-morbidity.”(Society for Cardiothoracic Surgery in Great Britain and Ireland)
Let us acquaint ourselves with the basic terms related to Risk Stratification.
The term risk in preoperative context include the chances of an adverse medical outcome like persistence, recurrence of the medical condition finally leading to ultimate reduction in the survival rate of the patient.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
The evaluation of the clinical data collected at hospitals, GP’S, and pharmacies can be used to derive the probability of a medical risk occurring. The evaluation of this information made available through various procurement techniques. This assessment may help in identifying the level of risk, the treatment to be administered and chances of survival of the particular member.
Risk assessment helps determine the probable patients that may require immediate or future surgeries (i.e. operable patients), who would need multimodality therapy and who may require treatment under the practitioners watchful eye.
The stratification of patients divides the probable risks as low risk score which lies between 21 to 100% ,moderately relative risk that lies between 6 to 20 % and high risk between 0.5 to 5% score anything lying below a probable 0.5% lies under the high risk radar leading to a surety that the patient would require future medical care.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Figure 1 Risk Score Model
NEED OF RISK STRATIFICATION
Risk stratification provides a thorough examination of the risk of future hospital admission varying across a population where the health and social care can be intervened to patients.
Who may require it the most
Who may benefit from it the most
Hence encouraging and providing proactive healthcare to the emergencies and also support delivery of efficient service.
HOW DOES RISK STRATIFYING WORK?
Three approaches are commonly used for risk stratification:
Accurate stratification of the risk involved with the patient is a key component in health care assessment of the procedural outcomes .An increasing no of health care organizations are getting dependent on the health care assessment through such programs as a means for assistance in making patient risk-stratification decisions. The only difficulty persist that the process of outcome model development is both time consuming and difficult due to the preliminary stage.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Many techniques can be used for medical assessment of risk like modelling techniques (logistic regression, artificial neural network (ANN), and Bayesian) to rapidly develop models for risk stratifying patients. The only difference is their method of analysis. The problem pertains that none of the technique give accurate results or are or hundred percent dependable.
Threshold Analysis where a set of criteria are defined describe ‘high risk’ patients alone.
Thresholds are target based research technique based on evidence that provides numerical targets for healthy development. Targets are derived by careful evaluation of the given literature on account of the case studies agree on a particular phenomenon. Various different sub populations like
Children who are vulnerable in health conditions.
Heart patients who suffer the risk of sudden casualty and medical attention.
Cancer patients so on.
Various such evaluations are being conducted by evaluation of patient data for all above sub populations.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Associations are conditions should be fulfilled, through a careful evaluation of the existing research literature. A committee may be formed to agree on the nature and direction of the conditions, the particular phenomena may not lend it well to the numerical thresholds precisely.
Clinical knowledge where practitioners based on their knowledge, experience and training identifies individuals who may in future prove to be ‘high risk’; and their current status. Patients keep visiting hospital and their general practitioners for pre and post operative care have their records maintained with health professional which may in the future be evaluated and help in the finding out the hospitalization risk and mortality risk of patients.
Predictive modelling the historic data made available through varying sources is used to evaluate and create an association between the patient’s current health condition and the likelihood o the patient to become a high risk in the future.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
PREDICTIVE RISK STRATIFICATION (PRISM)
Is a process used in predictive analytics to create a statistical model of future behaviour? Predictive analytics is the area of data mining concerned with forecasting probabilities and trends.
[Definition from http://searchdatamanagement.techtarget.com/definition/predictive-modeling]
A predictive model consist number of predictors that are variable factors which may tend to influence future behaviour or results. For example the age of a heart patient plays a potent role in the outcome of analysis.
In predictive modelling, data is accumulated for a relevant set of predictors, a statistical model is formulated, and on the basis of the available data predications are validated. The model may be based on a simple liner equation or may be formulated using a highly complicated neural network lattice.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Risk Stratification Tools
Risk stratification models can assist clinicians in making decisions on the subject of the need for additional testing once a preliminary clinical estimate has been performed. The American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) categorization of Physical Status was the first clinical manifestation developed to forecast risk. Introduced in 1941, it was remodelled to its current form in 1962 . Patients are categorized into one of 5 major classes based upon the presence and manifestations of affiliated medical disorders and whether emergency surgery is required. The utility of this index is limited by intra viewer inconsistency in rating and variations in the predictive power for postoperative hitches.
Demand of Predictive Modelling in Health Care:
A process when applied to available data identifies a person having high medical need and are “at risk” for the medical attention.
The concept is in demand for several reasons:
Most plans are saturated in data and want to use them to increase the efficiency and effective application of medical care.
In this time of severe medical inflation, it’s understandable that we focus on very high cost persons.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Case management and disease management (DM) programs are everywhere. Predictive Modelling could increase the reliability for returns of these programs.
Vendors and consultants have created a steering demand for Predictive Modelling Which is highly dependent on the marketing and scientific back grounds.
Predictive Modelling for Risk Measurement
Predictive modelling is part of a larger risk assessment and adjustment scale.
Risk factors, outcome measures, and estimation period to be related.
Predictive Modelling requires a more complex statistical engines Prediction/forecasting in medicine and healthcare is not new. Today the new reason for predictive modelling introduction is high risk case identification.
Figure 2 Stages of Prevention
Disease Stage, Prevention, and The Care Management Process are correlated in a way where at an initial stage the patient visits a GP based on early symptoms or distress at this stage the practitioner accesses the patients treatment needs or suggest certain tests t the patient. At the next stage where after evaluation of the disease the future predication is made on the need of hospitalization and hence the population is sorted into the sects required. On encountering a major disease where reoccurrence of disease or mortality is a condition a set of principles for disease management in performed by the practitioners if hospitalization is required an operative need arises case management under hospital administration is the final stage which may lead to either complete treatment of the high risk patient or mortality, complication or reoccurrence.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
THUS THE NEED OF PREDICTIVE MODELLING ARISES WHEN
There is a need to identify persons for admission in intensive case-management program.
To more effectively target disease management programs and focus on providing medical attention to the persons who are in need of attention.
To provide properly calculated risk information useful in making financial decisions and budget management.
To provide information to clinicians that may prove useful for quality improvement of patient standards.
To identify the need for educational campaigns and camps for better clinical outreach programs.
STEPS IN IMPLEMENTING OF PREDICATIVE MODEL
Various types of factual data like administrative records, increase and disease in records or encounter of rare or recurrent cases. The various means of data collection is through GP records, in house and out house patient records, emergency and accident case histories and so on. This phase may also be called initialization or pre processing stage.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Data warehousing or creation of a repository
The data collected over a fixed period of time of a similar format represents a warehouse. This data is collected through reliable sources. This warehouse data is subject to analysis as a processed input this marks the beginning of the stratification process.
The most important phase is to create a statistical engine with regressive research, setting conditions and associations there which the outcome is dependent. This marks the start of stratification of risked based on a scaring system that is predetermined by various conditional studies before product release.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Reporting the outcome in systematically and targeting the treatments cause and financial management. This out generated report represents the final outcome where the scores given to people mark the risk of re admissions in the future or casualties.
Care management and intervention in treatment
Intervening the ongoing treatments and healthcare routines determined by the resultant outcome .Relying on the systems output report the treatment may be altered to prevent the risk predicted.
Patients treatment feedback:
Filing and assessing patient feedbacks and managing of surveys to measure the pros n cons of the analytical system and where the model stands and the future enhancement required.
4. THE PRISM TOOL
PRISM is a probabilistic model inspection tool. Probabilistic model checking is an automatic formal veri¬cation technique for the analysis of systems which exhibit stochastic behaviour.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
THE MODEL OF PREDICTIVE RISK STRATIFICATION TOOL (PRISM)
Figure 3 Working of Stratification Model
PRISM model specification
PRISM has direct support for three types of probabilistic models: discrete-time Markov chains (DTMCs), Markov decision processes (MDPs) and continuoustime Markov chains (CTMCs. They are suitable for analysing systems with simple probabilistic behaviour and no concurrency.
e.g. synchronous randomised distributed algorithms.
PRISM caculates by performing a series of permutations and combination of nondeterminism and probability, building them to suite modelling multiple probabilistic processes executing in parallel. In some cases where parameters of the system or environmental the behaviour in which it is operating are unknown e.g. component failures and job arrivals.
PRISM can also be improved with costs and rewards, real values that manipulate the states and transitions of the model. Thus the reasoning capability off the model is exceeded to atrributes like “completion time”, “energy consumption” or “number of messages lost”.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Models are specified using the PRISM modelling language for the Reactive Modules formalism based on state change. Systems are described modules arranged parallely for processing. Each module’s state is controlled by the assigned probabilistic guarded commands. The language also supports various process algebraic operations with means of global variables and synchronisation. See the PRISM documentation and example repository at  for more information.
Figure 4 Example to Illustrate the Report of Risk Stratification
4.1 USING PRISM TO STRENGTHEN AND EVALUATE HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS
The PRISM framework identifies strengths and weaknesses in RHIS performance bridging the gaps hence found, leading to the enhancement of health system performance. Routine health information systems (RHIS) try record and present quality information about the health sector organizations. This information is then used as a guide to day-to-day treatments, track routine, rectifying the past results, and hence increasing the accountability.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
But the information available in such cases falls short the ideal requirements to produce high quality systems, data quality may be low, intermediate processes of data other may not exist, or managers and staff may have limited knowledge regarding information utility and use of systems, incentives to give attention to the management of information system processes may be few. Looking narrowly at technical issues such as data collection forms we understand the difficulties associated with improving the RHIS systems through PRISM.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
PROSPECTS ON CANCER MANAGEMENT
Refined ways to identify and employ multiple, often aggressive, therapies to achieve maximal cancer control its essential to help high-risk patient. Clinician can also give these patients the option to enrol in clinical trials that offer novel therapies. Categorization of patients into established and consistent risk categories is also of key importance in making comparisons between patients in clinical databases.
Sophisticated analytical instruments incorporate risk grouping of similar preoperative clinic pathologic parameters like pre-treatment serum PSA, biopsy score and capacity parameters, and medical tumour stage. Stirring research in the characterization of prostate cancer may one day provide more accurate and individual-specific risk assessment.
First introduced in 1966, Gleason score was introduced to evaluate prostate cancer. In many multivariate cases, the Gleason score proves to be an independent predictor of both pathologic tumours stage and time to biochemical recurrence. Gleason grade may be the most powerful preoperative prognostic factor.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Gleason score as:
â€¢ 6 or less as low-risk
â€¢ 7 as intermediate-risk
â€¢ 8 or above as high-risk
Also, Gleason 7 tumour can be sub classified into either 3+4 or 4+3, depending on which grade is most prevailing in the scores. This category of Gleason score classification and sub classification predicts postoperative outcomes. But the cancer tumour may increase or decrease based on treatment accepted by the recipient it’s a limitation of biopsy Gleason score as a predictor of outcome, its poor correlation with pathologic Gleason score of the surgical specimen Gleason score but still proves to be a good estimator of post operative outcome.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
PROSPECT IN CARDIAC ARREST
Preoperative risk scores are a vital tool for risk evaluation, cost-benefit analysis, and preface of new trends. A series of score systems have been developed to predict mortality after performing an adult heart surgery these score systems are based on patient derived data, such as age, gender, and so forth, but there are considerable differences between scores with regard to their design and validity for heart surgery with regard to their predictive values and clinical applicability for our patient population.
Although most of the particular score systems were first and foremost designed to predict mortality, postoperative morbidity has been acknowledged as the major determinant of hospital cost and quality of life after surgery. Therefore, we analyzed the selected risk scores not only with regard to their predictive value for mortality, but for postoperative morbidity as well.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
The entire population was then characterized into groups of vague probability of risk of major complications as follows: estimated probability of major cardiac complication <5%, low risk; 5.1% to 25%, medium risk; >25%, high risk. These three sub groups were chosen to provide large enough groups for adequate statistical comparison.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
PROSPECT IN DIABETIC HEALTHCARE
Diabetes may be present for up to 7 years before diagnosis early diagnosis, lifestyle modification, and tight glycemic control are necessary to reduce complications; however, these cannot occur if diabetes remains undiagnosed. There is insufficient evidence for or against routine diabetes screening. Reason being the burden and inconvenience caused by fasting visits to meet the diagnostic centres. Diabetes is usually diagnosed by fasting plasma glucose, values which require confirmation on a second visit .
Opportunistic programme for high-risk individuals during unscheduled outpatient, urgent care, or hospital visits may improve rates of diagnosis. From the household interview data, we analyzed information on self-reported age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income. While providers may choose to use different tools for risk stratification, the principle of deriving a low (<0.5%), moderate (4% to 5%) and high pre-test probability (>10%) could remain similar. Prior reports of diabetes screening in community and clinical venues have yielded mixed results, often limited by low prevalence rates and poor follow-up. Similar to any disease screening, patient adherence with confirmatory testing and subsequent therapy is vital to the successful implementation. Additionally, the cost-effectiveness of opportunistic diabetes screening is unclear and will require further investigation. The proposed algorithm of risk stratification relied on practical reasoning and interpretation of the data; others may suggest thresholds corresponding to different predictive values, and cost effectiveness analysis would further clarify optimal thresholds for clinical practice. Finally, this analysis provides a proposed algorithm, which, if validated, can serve as a guideline for providers, but should not substitute for sound clinical judgment for individual patients.
THE COST ASSOCIATION
Management of the institutes where stratification of health care has been implemented or tested argue the value of disease management programs from a conceptual angle however, most have a difficult time correlating dollars and cents to that value from its practical view point.
As disease management programs have started maturing in size and capacity there exceeds an importance in the task of justifying their expense by demonstrating financial. It is no longer sufficient to defend a program based on an illustrated ROI. Insurers and investors seek in turn the factual relevance, about which members are being identified, the hence taken interventions that can possibly be applied to them with most effectiveness, and which approach leads to genuine performance change and savings. These requirements for data will only amplify in the future, which will lead to insurers and program architects gaining additional concern about economic optimization of disease management efforts. Intensive risk profiling, predictive modelling and stratification will be hence compulsory requirements on the part of all who are involved in program design and execution. Assignment: Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods
Intervening early reduces costs
Typical high-cost, high-risk disease management program has been administered by a insurer. Members are at high risk because their care is high cost and because they meet definite clinical triggers. Managing these members at the disease stage which may be a non recoverable during this insurer intervenes is largely palliative. In addition, insurer identification methods typically result in a relatively large number of members being referred for management by costly clinical resources.
A more efficient program would identify high-risk members’ earlier prompting intervention with those whose behavior can be changed using risk profiling, prediction and economic modeling for the same.
As quality control and cost-benefit analysis have gained new relevance with recent developments in the health care system, selection of appropriate score systems for the evaluation of hospital performance has become an important issue to predict and estimate risk scores to predict future admissions and causalities and to ensure health care quality.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Risk stratification is a statistical process by which quality of care can be assessed independently. Evaluation of risk-adjusted patient outcome has become an imperative component of managed care constricting in some markets, and risk-adjusted result rates for hospitals are being reported more frequently in the popular press and on the internet.
The process of risk stratification does not require or assume an extensive arithmetical background. A description of the assumptions for risk stratification provides the quality of various published risk-stratification studies information on evaluation of health care. Numerous practical examples using authentic clinical data help to illustrate risk stratification in health care.
Risk stratification and predictive modelling applications are used in a variety of disease state classification systems derived using claims data. Algorithms based only on pharmacy claims have the recompense of timeliness, hygiene, and accessibility, while still being robust and efficient in the prediction of prospective healthcare outcomes and the costs relative to their incorporated therapeutic and pharmacy counterparts.Assignment: Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods
MIA JESSELENE SUGUITAN
Risk Management Process
Regency rest home and hospital provides assistive works for the day to day living most especially for the people who cannot manage to support their everyday routine. In identifying and characterizing the risk, this is assessing possible risk invaders in the organization and distinguishing possible reasons occurring in a workplace. Vulnerability affects the residents and employee work and its environment, it also tackles about currents assets involving establishments, equipment, appliances and financial status. It is also better to determine the effect or the impact of the said risk in the presence of the likelihood. In reducing possible risk, it is a best benefit in the part of employees and for the resident for the better provision in the future. Thus, this depends on the process of what the rest home and hospital measures every performance and its management styles.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Examples of management process;
Risk assessment process at Regency Rest Home and Hospital which includes (a)identifying and characterizing risk in the organization, (b)assessing vulnerability and assets to specific threats as scaled from 0%-100%,(c) determining the risk and the consequences in the likelihood,(d)different ways to reduce risk in the rest home and hospital,(e)prioritizing risk based on strategy.
a.1 Risk of fall and slips from the residents during the given shift.
Scattered wires and adaptors inside the establishments.
Side rails improperly laid up.
Poor housekeeping on the equipment’s and appliances.
b. The health and safety of the employee and the residents would affect the day to day activities. This might likely arise about 20% within people vulnerability assets.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
c. In the impact of likelihood this would affect the resident day to day activity and cannot able to help his/herself personal recreational stuffs.
d. To reduce risk there should be;
Be proper housekeeping of appliances and equipment’s after used.
After any activity done for a patient always remember when putting back on her bed most especially for aggressive residents, always put side rails up. And if rails are not available always put pillows on each side of the bed.
Put up signage to prevent injuries.
e. Avoidance the risk of possible falls or slips and do something to avoid any accidents that would affect not only on the health and safety of the residents but also on the part of each employee.
a.2 Risk of improper handling and assisting care to the residents most particularly on their personal hygiene.
Taking bath on residents that involves in washing their private parts.
Tidying their wardrobe and room every after washed.
b.10% would possibly affect the residents personal rights on to her/his own needs in caring their body. Since some of the residents can still manage to clean their selves, we still need to supervise their activity and asked if they need assistance. Another is other residents cannot able to look up their personal regimens so, a full assistance is needed for them. This would also affect the reputation of the rest home and hospital if someone would report any malicious act as every activity is ongoing, example is when bathing and washing their private parts.
c. The impact of likelihood would be, since some of the residents experienced dementia (loss of ability to think properly especially on his/her daily routines) in rendering health care services unexplained procedures in residents, may feel unprotected and abuse in the site of their caregivers/health care assistance. And for other residents reputation from the care givers would probably ungreatful.
d. To reduce risk;
Inform consent and explain any activity to be done.
Respect resident privacy in carry out cares.
Encourage resident to improve level of independence like in their personal hygiene and activities.
Correct use of mobility aids or with the assistance from the fellow employee member.
e. Limit the risk in this situation because this is considered as a part of the daily activity wherein residents should always be seen nice and tidy every day. Making sure that every residents are respected and informed any procedures to be than on the course of any activity to prevent any faults.Assignment: Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods
Employee/staff member risk
a.3 Risk in Improper delegation of tasked on the course of assigned shift.
Miss communication between staff and staff members in designating proper tasked.
In coherent data assessment that would effect on the future needs of a residents.
b. 20% would affect staff members and not doing healthy in the career would be liable by negligence in the part or rendering care to residents.
c. The impact of risk in likelihood would be a negative and unhelpful outlook to each employee and colleagues. Also it affects the reputation of the institution itself to the other residents who wanted to be a part of the associate.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
d. To reduce risk;
Willingness to complete the tasked in time, given to each employee positive and helpful outlook toward every residents and colleagues
Active discussion and problem solving for the members of the staff.
Completes distributed tasked.
Show consideration to the other colleagues and to the residents
Ensures planned works can meet the needs of every resident
Participate scheduled staff meetings and discussions.
e. Limit the possible result of miscommunication, if possible mingle and have knowledge on things with the members of staff and adjust with the team member and staff to minimize extent of risk.
a.4 Risk in Fire inside the establishment especially on the assigned wing.
Facilities, equipment and appliances are damage.
Residents and employees of the establishment would experience injuries during any fire outbreak.
b. About 5% to be roughly to happen. Critical assets like the building, the equipment’s, appliances and scarcity of money would affect the health and safety of every resident and employee as well.
c. The impact of likelihood is fire would occur establishments would fall down into business, financial would affect the employee’s job and the lost properties. Assignment: Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods
d. To reduce risk;
Have knowledge and understanding on the emergency situation especially on fire
Reports any hazard and damages in the equipment used while on shift.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Attendance to one fire exits
Have knowledge in fire manual
Have knowledge and responsibilities in fire alarm sound.
Have knowledge in hazard reporting
Have knowledge on how and where to report damage
e. Transfer in the risk, this would help residents from having any grievances and on the part of the employee’s health and safety of residents, their selves, is their first priority. There are ways in securing residents lives like transferring residents into a near facilities if accident may happen.
Prioritizing the Risk
From highest to lowest prioritization.
1. Improper delegation of tasked during the assigned shift.
2. Risk from falls and slips during the shift.
3. Risk in handling and assisting residents on their personal routine
4. Risk from fire in the premises.
Risk management frameworks and The Principles
In risk management framework, it overviews goals, objectives, qualitative and quantitative parts of an organization.Assignment: Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods
COSO framework has been introduced and this was used by every business and management in dealing uncertain threats and risk than may encounter in a workplace. It defines as a process, where it affects the peoples entity applied in a setting to recognize possible risk to ensure achievement of a certain objectives most especially in the industry you are working for.
Entity objectives with its category;
In event identification, it identifies risk and opportunities in a certain workplace. It may result into a negative or positive outlook of every people. Involves identifying those cases, like internally or externally, that could affect strategy and reaching the objectives that they want.it also talks how internal and external factors combine and interact to influence the management risk. For example;Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Events from a disaster like fire, this is identified as a part of an event that would happen anytime or in the future and it needs a proper management caution if ever this will occur.
In risk assessment, allows an entity to recognize the extent to which latent events might impact objectives. Assesses risks from viewpoints or the perception in the impact of likelihood. Is used to assess risks and used to quantify the related objectives. For example;
In events like fire, risk could cause burns from equipment, appliances and establishment. Also it affects the residents and the staff member as well. Abrasions, contusions and concussions would likely experienced, and unexpected events like this must have identify measures of management. Works a combination of both
qualitative and quantitative risk assessment organizations.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Risk response, measures the degree and cost of impact in a likelihood. And also it evaluates the possible response of an identified risk. In control activities, this is the application of general information to control possible risk or events that would occur. In information and communication this pertains the time frame of an employee on its works on how he/she carries out responsibilities. The most effective ERM component is the monitoring wherein there is a separate evaluations for each activity that has been done in a day.
Internal control and integrated framework includes objective setting as an isolated component. Objectives is a part of the qualification for internal control. It also expands the financial reporting and risk assessment.
The components of a risk management in a workplace is very helpful if risk occurs. Strategies in risk assessment would quantify the proportion of cause of a certain risk. The entity and division level, for as a healthcare assistance or caregivers has a big part on the residents lives more likely in assisting and rendering care for them.
Part of the risk management process within an organization. And examples of each step
a. Determine the objectives at Regency Rest home and hospital.
To Support residents on the activities of the day to day that will reflects on the resident’s level of dependency.
To actively promote and maintain environmental safety for the residents
To provide a service to all residents that is considerate and professional
To work effectively as a team member for the betterment of the work.
To support every residents on their social need
For example, in every task that we do, we involve our patients/residencies independency, like tooth brushing, changing clothes and others. We provide support for all their care especially to those who can’t able to upkeep his/her self. The establishments has a variety of facilities wherein residents can join the fan like watching concerts in the lounge with their fellow residents. Assignment: Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods
b./c.Identify exposures to loss and the Measure exposures from the organization.
In determining loss, “threats” are the most consequence that results in a loss of some part of category of an organization.
Example of loss;
Financial- about 70-80% is the scale because the organization like the rest home and hospital depends on the net income. And the equipment, insurance compensation of every employee, re-furbish of the establishment and many more.
Liability- 20-30%this covers the defending claim of the residents to the employee on the management activities.
When caregivers forgets to put up side rails during or after care on bed, most especially if the residents is aggressive this will be known as Negligence to work.
Personal loss- 10-15% likely to happen like personal injury, real properties and personal property. Such as fire which could affect organization and the establishment as well.
Checklist and surveys can be a helpful in determining exposure to loss.
d.Select alternatives on the organization
Brainstorming, listening or noting of alternatives, is an outstanding discovery process. Once you have listed alternatives, be open to their opportunities.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
When having an orientation to every staff members everyone is allowed to share comment and suggestions in relative to the topic they are discussing. And also data gathering like time of washing, if they had bowel or not and also in feeding resident, we make sure they are listed because this will help employee to make resolution if some of the activities are maintain.
e.Implement a solution at Regency Rest Home and Hospital
Risk management is a series of action composed or made-up of well-defined steps which when taken in order, support better decision making by contributing to a greater insight into risks and their impacts. By acquiring effective risk management there are techniques that can help improved safety and quality. As healthcare settings vary greatly in their day-to-day function, it is not possible to provide a one appropriate all approach to risk management.
At this stage all the information gained brought together to consider what actions should be taken. In order to make this process, consider how the level of risk will be affected by the planed alleviation strategies.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Avoiding the risk: avoiding risk to get become worst. Selecting other lower risk procedure.
Reducing the risk: can be reduced through preventative measures, and perform the required task and minimize the risk.
Transferring the risk: getting another individual or team to assist or perform that are better equipped or have more experience in doing the task.
Retaining the risk and managing: strategies include using PPE (PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT).
f. Monitor and review the outcomes of risk management.Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods Essay
Monitoring is very broad, it’s just not mean to check on what is happening overall. Monitoring can be useful enough for setting what is wrong and making good things to a better one. Monitoring is not just merely watching or observing because it will look like it was a passive monitoring. The best way to monitor things out in an organization is the combination of watching/observing with the aid of listening, because listening was the way of at least knowing the reaction of the people lower than the management and for those people whom you are giving your care. And employees are good basis of information. For example;
In giving or assisting residents in their personal regimen, residents may comment to their caregivers how appreciated they are helping them in performing their daily routine and as per observation by their fellow employee feedbacks will turn unto you and this will give a better chances either to renew a contact or not all. Assignment: Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods
Health risk assessment in humans is used to approximate the type and likelihood of the occurrence of health effects on people that may be exposed to hazardous material in a contaminated environment. Not only does the assessment seek to establish the likelihood and type of effects but also whether there is a given concentration of the hazardous material that would not cause any harm to humans. The assessment also involves an analysis of the chances whether the effects of the hazardous material will be different in people based on their sex, age, or genetics (Glendon, Clarke & McKenna, 2006, p. 18). A health assessment is done using four steps. I am going to conduct a health assessment of my environment to show how these four steps are used. Assignment: Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods
The first step in my assessment will involve hazard identification. In this particular case the hazard I identified is contaminated food. It is however important to note that before this step one should have planned their assessment well and conducted research on the area. The contaminated food in this case will be the one I get from our kitchen and from restaurants. In particular I am interested in knowing the E. coli levels that I can be exposed to through this food.Assignment: Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods
The second step involves an assessment on the dose response to show the relationship in numerals between being exposed and the impacts. The infectious population of E. coli ranges from 10 to a 100 organisms (Glendon, Clarke & McKenna, 2006, p. 92).
In the third step which involves assessment of the exposure in terms of the timing, levels, and frequency at which I get in contact with the E. coli. I am likely to get exposed to this bacterium if the food handler in where I eat comes into contact with any fecal matter and does not wash their hands before touching my food. Also the handler may wash their hands but some of the fecal matter remains wedged in their nails. This therefore means that my levels and frequency of exposure are subjective to the actions of the food handler, even when it is at home.
In my final step I am doing the risk characterization where I make conclusions on the extent and nature of the health risk from exposure to E. coli. Exposure to this bacterium may lead to me having diarrhea and stomach pains. If I get exposed to more than 100 organisms then I can become seriously ill and even be hospitalized because of the pain and diarrhea I will be experiencing (Glendon, Clarke & McKenna, 2006, p. 93). Assignment: Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods
I can avoid the risk of getting contaminated with diarrhea by making sure I wash my hands with soap before I start cooking. I should also ensure I keep short nails and that everyone in our house who handles food does the same too. What else I can do to avoid exposure to E. coli is to eat only in restaurants that maintain a good record of cleanliness … Assignment: Healthcare Risk Assessment Methods