Assignment 2: Applied Learning

Assignment 2: Applied Learning

Assignment 2: Applied Learning

Psychology is an interesting field of study because the theories and concepts that you learn can often be observed in the world around you. This assignment allows you to consider material you have covered in the content of this module and apply those concepts to your own life. Assignment 2: Applied Learning



  • Download the Applied Learning Assignment Template.
  • Write your answers in the spaces provided. and save the template.
  • By the due date assigned, save your template as lastname_firstinitial_module# and post it to the Submissions Area.

Use these tips for completing your psychology worksheet.

Grading Rubric

Assignment 2

 Grading Criteria

Maximum Points

Described in at least 150 words three different concepts, ideas or research findings from the content covered in this module.50

Described in at least 150 words how one concept, idea, or research from this module can be applied to personal life.25

Described in at least 150 words how one concept, idea, or research from this module can be applied to work life.25

Used correct spelling and grammar.10


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    Tips for Completing the Psychology Worksheets


    Section 1 asks you to identify 3 different concepts, ideas or research findings that you found interesting this week. You may choose a new idea you learned, such as a strong attachment to a parent during infancy is important for normal development, or a new concept such as Retroactive Interference, or Oedipus Complex. Or, you may describe a study you learned about in the text book, such as A study found that first-born children are often the highest achievers among their siblings.

    · Be sure to supply enough information about your idea, concept or research finding, in order to earn credit.

    · Imagine that you must explain each one to a friend. What would you say? Can you summarize it in a few sentences for your friend to understand?

    · While you need to write the description in your own words, you also need to base the description on what you read and learn in class. Be sure that you are using the terms and ideas accurately by reading carefully.

    · Remember, you need to identify and explain three different ideas, concepts or research findings that interested you this week.



    Section 2 asks you to delve further in one idea from above, that you feel has special significance for your personal life. So, for instance, you may choose to write about attachment during infancy, and how your attachment to your parent affected your life.

    · Remember, while you are using your own example, you need to base your statements on what you learn in class, not simply your opinion. So, for instance, you may describe how your little son has said he “wishes he could marry his mother” when he grows up, and this is consistent with Freud’s ideas about the Oedipus Complex.

    · Stick close to what you learn about each idea, and talk about how your example illustrates this.



    Section 3 asks you to think about how one idea from above might apply to your current or future work life.

    · Will you use this idea, concept or research finding at some point? How?

    · Why would it be relevant? Or, what insight did you gain that can be applied to your professional life? For instance, you might learn about Maslow’s ideas regarding motivation, and apply those to striving for success in your chosen field.

    · Remember, while you are writing about your own example, you need to be sure to use material from the text to support what you say. Assignment 2: Applied Learning

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    11/30/2018 Module 3 – PSY101 | General Psychology | AN181115.1219.5W | AUO | A01 2/5


    Module 3 Overview Web Page

    Module 3—Readings; Videos; and Outlines Web Page

    Memory Web Page

    Effor�ul Processing Strategies Web Page

    Emo�ons and Memory Web Page

    Memory Retrieval Web Page

    Amnesia Web Page

    Improve your Grades Web Page

    0 % 0 of 18 topics complete



    11/30/2018 Module 3 – PSY101 | General Psychology | AN181115.1219.5W | AUO | A01 3/5

    Life-Span Perspec�ve Web Page

    Infancy Web Page

    Childhood Web Page

    Adolescence Web Page

    Adulthood Web Page

    Older Life Web Page

    Summary Web Page

    M3 Assignment 1 Discussion Discussion Topic

    Due December 1 at 11:59 PM

    Assignment 1: Applying Memory Research to Learning

    Due by the due date assigned. Complete your par�cipa�on for this assignment through the end of

    the module.

    First review the Memory chapter in your textbook, then respond to all of the following prompts.

    a. Describe how the process of memoriza�on works. Use the terms Encoding, Storage, and

    Retrieval in your explana�on.

    b. Imagine that you have a son in 7th grade. Your son needs to memorize all the states and

    their capitals for his social studies class. Based on what you have learned in your text,

    provide two memory �ps or techniques for your son to use. In each case, provide enough

    detail to illustrate the technique you are recommending.

    c. State one fact you’ve learned about memory this module that will help you in your own



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    Applied Learning

    Psychology is an interesting field of study because the theories and concepts that you learn can often be observed in the world around you. This assignment allows you to consider material you have covered in the content of this module and apply those concepts to your own life.

    In Section 1, you will identify and define ideas. In this module, as you reviewed your course materials, you likely discovered many interesting new ideas in psychology.

    · Identify three different concepts, ideas, or research findings that were interesting or useful to you.

    · Explain or describe each concept, theory or research finding in detail, in your own words.

    · A good response here would be at least 150 words. Be sure to use proper spelling and grammar in your response. Write your response in the space below.


    In Section 2, you will make an application to your personal life.

    · After identifying the interesting concepts, ideas, or research findings above, provide an original example of how one of them is relevant in your personal or family life.

    · A good response here would be at least 150 words. Be sure to use proper spelling and grammar in your response. Write your response in the space below. Assignment 2: Applied Learning


    In Section 3, make an application to your work life.

    · From the interesting concepts, ideas or research findings identified in Section 1 provide an original example of how one of them is relevant in your work life. Or, can you think of an example of how this issue plays out in your own current or future career?

    · A good response here would be at least 150 words. Be sure to use proper spelling and grammar in your response. Write your response in the space below.


    Grading Rubric

    Assignment 3 Grading Criteria Maximum Points
    Described in at least 150 words three different concepts, ideas or research findings from the content covered in this module. 50
    Described in at least 150 words how one concept, idea, or research from this module can be applied to personal life. 25
    Described in at least 150 words how one concept, idea, or research from this module can be applied to work life. 25
    Used correct spelling and grammar. 10
    Total: 110
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    An Information-Processing Model

    How does memory work? Here is a simplified description:

    Let’s start by examining the encoding and storage stages, collectively referred to as Memory Processing.

    Memory Processing

    Memory processing can be automatic (happen without consciously thinking about it) or effortful.

    Automatic processing leads to “implicit”memory, where we remember something without any effort or conscious thought. Many physical skills are acquired this way, such as how to roller skate or ride a bike. A sense of direction is also often automatic; we memorize the way to the grocery store after several trips riding as a passenger in a car. We also form automatic associations or memories to situations that have an emotional impact, such as feeling anxious when we enter the dentist’s office.


    Effortful processing is more akin to what we think of as “learning.” Effortful processing is the deliberate application of repetition and strategies to store information. We learn to play music, remember a name, or remember a new recipe with effortful processing. These strategies lead to our “Explicit” memories, the things we “know” we remember.

    Let’s examine effortful processing in more detail.

    Effortful Processing Strategies

    We use effortful processing strategies to encode information all the time. For example, we would have a hard time memorizing the letters “MORDBKIPNAMPL” since we only have short-term recall of 7 letters. However, we could more easily remember more than 7 letters if we group them into words. ”MORDBKIPNAMPL” is easier to remember when rearranged as “PINK BEDROOM LAMP”.

    This is an example of an effortful processing strategy—a way to encode information into memory to keep it from decaying and make it easier to retrieve. Effortful processing is also known as studying. Assignment 2: Applied Learning

    Let’s look at some other effortful processing strategies:


    Chunking refers to a strategy to organize data into manageable units.

    Credit card companies use chunking to help you remember your credit card number. Did you ever wonder why credit card numbers are broken up into groups of four digits? Four “chunks” are easier to encode (memorize) and recall than sixteen individual digits.

    Chunking works even better if we can assemble information into meaningful groups. For example, which of the following is easier to memorize?




    A mnenomic is a memory “trick” that connects information to existing memory strengths such as imagery or structure.

    Imagine that you have the following grocery list: bread, eggs, cookies, and kale. Any of the following mnenomics could be used to help you remember the things on your list.

    · Try forming a visual image of each item.

    · Create an acronym with the first letter of each word, so “Bread, Eggs, Cookies, and Kale” becomes “BECK”.

    · Use a peg word system. In this strategy you visually associate new words with an existing list that is already memorized. For example, my street address is “6823” and I may “peg” each of the things on my list to a number on my street address, so I associate 6 = Bread, 8 = Eggs, 2 = Cookies, and 3 = Kale.

    Making Information Personally Meaningful

    Another strategy to help memorize information is to make that information personally meaningful. The self-reference effect—relating material to ourselves—aids in encoding and retention. We can memorize a set of instructions more easily if we figure out what it means rather than seeing it as a set of words. Actors are able to memorize lines more easily (and students memorize poems more easily) by deciding on the feelings and meanings behind the words, so that one line flows naturally to the next. Memorizing meaningful material takes one tenth of the effort of memorizing nonsense syllables.

    Try memorizing the following words: Bold, truck, green, glue, chips, knob, hard.

    Now try memorizing the list of words again, only this time consider how each word relates to you. For instance, you may think of “bold” as being a quality associated with your sister, and “truck” as your husband’s truck, and “green” may be your favorite color, etc. Does this make the words easier to remember?

    Alternately, you could employ the “Method of Loci” and attach each word on your list to a familiar place, such as your home. You would envision a “bold” color in the living room, then parked in the driveway is your husband’s “truck,” the next room is your “green” kitchen, in the closet you envision the “glue” sticks you bought for crafts, and so on.

    Emotions and Memory

    Strong emotions, especially stress, can strengthen memory formation. Flashbulb memories refer to emotionally intense events that become “burned in” as a vivid-seeming memory. For instance, many of us remember what we were doing when we first heard that the Challenger exploded, or that airplanes had crashed into the World Trade Center on 9/11. We also may have a vivid memory of a significant personal event, such as the first time we saw our child, or the last time we saw our father before his death.

    Vividly storing information about dangers may have helped our ancestors to survive. However, it is important to note that flashbulb memories are not as accurate as they feel. Our flashbulb memories may seem very vivid to us, but research has found they are subject to unconscious elaboration and “wishful” thinking over time.

    Memory Retrieval

    Next, let’s consider processes involved in retrieving memories which have been stored. We will focus on 3 simple types of retrieval: recall, recognition, and relearning.

    Recall: Some people, through practice, visual strategies, or biological differences, have the ability to store and recall thousands of words or digits, reproducing them years later. Fill-in-the-blank tests are tests of recall.

    Recognition: The average person can view 2500 new faces and places, and later can point out, with 90% accuracy, which ones he or she has seen before. Multiple Choice tests are examples of tests of recognition.

    Relearning: Some people are unable to form new memories, especially of episodes. Although they would not recall a puzzle-solving lesson, they might still solve a puzzle faster after each lesson. This is an example of implicit memory, in which we show evidence of memory (learning) without realizing we are remembering!


    There are two types of amnesia—retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia.

    Retrograde amnesia refers to an inability to retrieve memory of the past.

    Retrograde amnesia can be caused by head injury or emotional trauma and is often temporary. Retrograde amnesia can also be caused by more severe brain damage. In that case it may include the second form of amnesia, anterograde amnesia. Assignment 2: Applied Learning

    Anterograde amnesia refers to an inability to form new long-term declarative/explicit memories.

    Most movie amnesia is retrograde amnesia, with the exception of the movie Memento which depicts anterograde amnesia. The most famous case of anterograde amnesia is H.M., who lived with no memories of life after surgery.

    Improve your Grades

    Let’s apply what we’ve learned about memory to improve grades. The following are ways to save overall studying time and build more reliable memory:

    1. Learn the material in more than one way, not just by rote, but by creating many retrieval cues.

    a. Think of examples and connections to what you are reading (add meaningful depth).

    b. Create mnemonics—songs, images, and lists.

    2. Minimize interference with related material or fun activites. Study right before sleep or other mindless activity.

    3. Have muliple study sessions, spaced further and further apart after first learning the material.

    4. Spend your study sessions activating your retrieval cues including context (recalling where you were when learning the material).

    5. Test yourself in study sessions. This serves two goals. First you practice doing retrieval as you would in a test, and second, to overcome the overconfidence error—the material seems familiar, but can you explain it in your own words?

    Life-Span Perspective

    Allison, with her husband Ben, visits her parents for the first time since she got married. Her mother shows Ben the family album—Allison’s baby hand and feet impressions, her first baby steps, her first day at school, her first date, a picture with her brother, Allison in her prom dress, Allison with her high school diploma, and so on. These pictures give Ben glimpses of Allison’s life until their marriage. Looking through the album, Ben gets a feel of Allison’s life. However, many more events and changes must have shaped Allison’s personality.

    Psychology studies continuity and change in a person’s complete lifespan. There are different theories of development. Review the chart below to compare.

    Let’s review one of the most widely applied models, the life-span perspective. The life stage theory developed by Erik Erikson, a famous psychologist, provided a comprehensive understanding of lifespan development.

    Erikson’s Life Stage Theory

    Erik Erikson developed a life stage theory in which individuals go through eight stages in life. Each stage is characterized by a psychosocial dilemma—a conflict between personal demands and the demands placed by the world outside that one outgrows to reach the next stage. At every stage, an individual might experience any one of the psychosocial dilemmas. The way the individual emerges from these dilemmas will determine how satisfied the individual is and how the individual interacts with the environment.

    Erikson’s theory gives a more holistic view to personality development, but the more common way of looking at lifespan development is in terms of five distinct stages: infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age. Each stage brings with it its corresponding physiological and psychological changes.

    Now, let’s explore the changes faced by individuals at each of these five stages of life.


    The first two years in the life of a baby constitute the infancy years.

    In the years of infancy, infants take their first steps and speak their first words. It is important, at this point, that parents provide their babies adequate stimulation so that physical and verbal development takes place at the right time. Emotional development is minimal during these two years.

    Some specific physical changes that take place during infancy are as follows:

    · An infant can differentiate its mother’s face from anyone else’s by about three months.

    · An infant grows in weight and length, and by about 13 months, is usually able to sit up and crawl.

    · An infant is capable of distinguishing between sounds, colors, odors, and sights. It does not look long at an object presented to it more than two times. Assignment 2: Applied Learning

    · An infant is usually able to respond in a conditioned manner to actions, such as stroking of its face, within two years.

    Research shows that an infant is capable of imitating expressions demonstrated by others.


    The 10 to 13 years following infancy constitute the childhood years. The maximum learning takes place during this stage. There are many important milestones for a child during these years to successfully travel through to help the child emerge as a healthy and happy adolescent.

    There are many physical, cognitive, emotional, social, and moral perspectives of development through these important years that you will read about in your texts.

    Physical growth accompanies maturation of motor ability and the ability to experience more of their environment. This also includes the acquisition of language and the ability to communicate to others.

    Children also experience significant cognitive development, which is best explained by Piaget’s theory of child development.

    Click here to learn more about Piaget’s theory.


    Adolescence involves physical changes determined by hormonal changes, which bring variations in behavior and attitude. This period is also known as puberty, and it marks the transition between childhood and adulthood. Let’s now examine some prominent cognitive and emotional issues faced by adolescents.


    After adolescence, the next 22 to 65 years constitute the challenging world of adulthood where there is less turbulence and greater responsibility. The psychological and physiological changes of adulthood are explained through three different viewpoints.

    Click here to learn more.

    Major changes in important domains of adult functioning

    Older Life

    The single-most common issue of old age is coming to terms with mortality—inevitable death. Elderly people who live until their 90s have had to cope with the deaths of many of their loved ones. From the time they reach their 70s, having witnessed the loss of many people of their own age, they start believing that death may be near for them. When faced with illness, they often experience denial about the implications of their illness. After passing through phases of anger, bargaining, and depression, however, many people arrive at an acceptance of their situation. Typical grief reactions consist of shock, grief, apathy, dejection, and depression followed by a renewed sense of experiencing joys and relationships in life that still exist.

    After elderly people come to terms with fading health and death, they are much more likely to be happy in the last few years of their lives. Many people experience great pleasure in looking back on their life experiences and accomplishments, as well as being able to appreciate life with greater perspective and understanding. Although aging brings many difficulties it can also bring a great deal of reflection, satisfaction, and hope about life. Assignment 2: Applied Learning